Xen can be compiled with coverage support. When configured, Xen will record the coverage of its own basic blocks. Being a piece of system software rather than a userspace, it can't automatically write coverage out to the filesystem, so some extra steps are required to collect and process the data.

warning

Coverage has only been tested on x86 at the moment. ARM doesn't currently boot when the final binary exceeds 2MB in size, and the coverage build tends to exceeds this limit.

1 Compiling Xen

Coverage support is dependent on the compiler and toolchain used. As Xen isn't a userspace application, it can't use the compiler supplied library, and instead has to provide some parts of the implementation itself.

For x86, coverage support was introduced with GCC 3.4 or later, and Clang 3.9 or later, and Xen is compatible with these. However, the compiler internal formats do change occasionally, and this may involve adjustments to Xen. While we do our best to keep up with these changes, Xen may not be compatible with bleeding edge compilers.

To build with coverage support, enable CONFIG_COVERAGE in Kconfig. The build system will automatically select the appropriate format based on the compiler in use.

The resulting binary will record its own coverage while running.

2 Accessing the raw coverage data

The SYSCTL_coverage_op hypercall is used to interact with the coverage data. A dom0 userspace helper, xenconv is provided as well, which thinly wraps this hypercall.

The read subcommand can be used to obtain the raw coverage data:

[root@host ~]# xencov read > coverage.dat

This is toolchain-specific data and needs to be fed back to the appropriate programs to post-process.

Alternatively, the reset subcommand can be used reset all counters back to 0:

[root@host ~]# xencov reset

3 GCC coverage

A build using GCC's coverage will result in *.gcno artefact for every object file. The raw coverage data needs splitting to form the matching *.gcda files.

An example of how to view the data is as follows. It uses lcov which is a graphical frontend to gcov.

xen.git/xen$ ssh root@host xencov read > coverage.dat
xen.git/xen$ ../tools/xencov_split coverage.dat --output-dir=/
xen.git/xen$ geninfo . -o cov.info
xen.git/xen$ genhtml cov.info -o cov/
xen.git/xen$ $BROWSER cov/index.html

4 Clang coverage

An example of how to view the data is as follows.

xen.git/xen$ ssh root@host xencov read > xen.profraw
xen.git/xen$ llvm-profdata merge xen.profraw -o xen.profdata
xen.git/xen$ llvm-cov show -format=html -output-dir=cov/ xen-syms -instr-profile=xen.profdata
xen.git/xen$ $BROWSER cov/index.html

Full documentation on Clang's coverage capabilities can be found at: https://clang.llvm.org/docs/SourceBasedCodeCoverage.html