1 Xenstore Migration

1.1 Background

The design for Non-Cooperative Migration of Guests[1] explains that extra save records are required in the migrations stream to allow a guest running PV drivers to be migrated without its co-operation. Moreover the save records must include details of registered xenstore watches as well as content; information that cannot currently be recovered from xenstored, and hence some extension to the xenstored implementations will also be required.

As a similar set of data is needed for transferring xenstore data from one instance to another when live updating xenstored this document proposes an image format for a ‘migration stream’ suitable for both purposes.

1.2 Proposal

The image format consists of a header followed by 1 or more records. Each record consists of a type and length field, followed by any data mandated by the record type. At minimum there will be a single record of type END (defined below).

The header identifies the stream as a xenstore stream, including the version of the specification that it complies with.

All fields in this header must be in big-endian byte order, regardless of the setting of the endianness bit.

    0       1       2       3       4       5       6       7    octet
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
| ident                                                         |
+-------------------------------+-------------------------------|
| version                       | flags                         |
+-------------------------------+-------------------------------+
Field Description
ident 0x78656e73746f7265 (‘xenstore’ in ASCII)
version 0x00000001 (the version of the specification)
flags 0 (LSB): Endianness: 0 = little, 1 = big
1-31: Reserved (must be zero)

1.2.2 Records

Records immediately follow the header and have the following format:

    0       1       2       3       4       5       6       7    octet
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
| type                          | len                           |
+-------------------------------+-------------------------------+
| body
...
|       | padding (0 to 7 octets)                               |
+-------+-------------------------------------------------------+

NOTE: padding octets here and in all subsequent format specifications must be written as zero and should be ignored when the stream is read.

Field Description
type 0x00000000: END
0x00000001: GLOBAL_DATA
0x00000002: CONNECTION_DATA
0x00000003: WATCH_DATA
0x00000004: TRANSACTION_DATA
0x00000005: NODE_DATA
0x00000006 - 0xFFFFFFFF: reserved for future use
len The length (in octets) of body
body The type-specific record data

Some records will depend on other records in the migration stream. Records upon which other records depend must always appear earlier in the stream.

The various formats of the type-specific data are described in the following sections:

1.2.3 END

The end record marks the end of the image, and is the final record in the stream.

    0       1       2       3       4       5       6       7    octet
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+

The end record contains no fields; its body length is 0.

1.2.4 GLOBAL_DATA

This record is only relevant for live update. It contains details of global xenstored state that needs to be restored.

    0       1       2       3    octet
+-------+-------+-------+-------+
| rw-socket-fd                  |
+-------------------------------+
| evtchn-fd                     |
+-------------------------------+
Field Description
rw-socket-fd The file descriptor of the socket accepting
read-write connections
evtchn-fd The file descriptor used to communicate with
the event channel driver

xenstored will resume in the original process context. Hence rw-socket-fd and ro-socket-fd simply specify the file descriptors of the sockets. Sockets are not always used, however, and so -1 will be used to denote an unused socket.

1.2.5 CONNECTION_DATA

For live update the image format will contain a CONNECTION_DATA record for each connection to xenstore. For migration it will only contain a record for the domain being migrated.

    0       1       2       3       4       5       6       7    octet
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
| conn-id                       | conn-type     |               |
+-------------------------------+---------------+---------------+
| conn-spec
...
+---------------+---------------+-------------------------------+
| in-data-len   | out-resp-len  | out-data-len                  |
+---------------+---------------+-------------------------------+
| data
...
Field Description
conn-id A non-zero number used to identify this
connection in subsequent connection-specific
records
conn-type 0x0000: shared ring
0x0001: socket
0x0002 - 0xFFFF: reserved for future use
conn-spec See below
in-data-len The length (in octets) of any data read
from the connection not yet processed
out-resp-len The length (in octets) of a partial response
not yet written to the connection
out-data-len The length (in octets) of any pending data
not yet written to the connection, including
a partial response (see out-resp-len)
data Pending data: first in-data-len octets of
read data, then out-data-len octets of
written data (any of both may be empty)

In case of live update the connection record for the connection via which the live update command was issued will contain the response for the live update command in the pending not yet written data.

The format of conn-spec is dependent upon conn-type.

For shared ring connections it is as follows:

    0       1       2       3       4       5       6       7    octet
+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
| domid         | tdomid        | evtchn                        |
+-------------------------------+-------------------------------+
Field Description
domid The domain-id that owns the shared page
tdomid The domain-id that domid acts on behalf of if
it has been subject to an SET_TARGET
operation [2] or DOMID_INVALID [3] otherwise
evtchn The port number of the interdomain channel used
by xenstored to communicate with domid

The GFN of the shared page is not preserved because the ABI reserves entry 1 in domid’s grant table to point to the xenstore shared page. Note there is no guarantee the page will still be valid at the time of the restore because a domain can revoke the permission.

For socket connections it is as follows:

+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
| socket-fd                     | pad                           |
+-------------------------------+-------------------------------+
Field Description
socket-fd The file descriptor of the connected socket

This type of connection is only relevant for live update, where the xenstored resumes in the original process context. Hence socket-fd simply specify the file descriptor of the socket connection.

1.2.6 WATCH_DATA

The image format will contain a WATCH_DATA record for each watch registered by a connection for which there is CONNECTION_DATA record previously present.

    0       1       2       3    octet
+-------+-------+-------+-------+
| conn-id                       |
+---------------+---------------+
| wpath-len     | token-len     |
+---------------+---------------+
| wpath
...
| token
...
Field Description
conn-id The connection that issued the WATCH
operation [2]
wpath-len The length (in octets) of wpath including the
NUL terminator
token-len The length (in octets) of token including the
NUL terminator
wpath The watch path, as specified in the WATCH
operation
token The watch identifier token, as specified in the
WATCH operation

1.2.7 TRANSACTION_DATA

The image format will contain a TRANSACTION_DATA record for each transaction that is pending on a connection for which there is CONNECTION_DATA record previously present.

    0       1       2       3    octet
+-------+-------+-------+-------+
| conn-id                       |
+-------------------------------+
| tx-id                         |
+-------------------------------+
Field Description
conn-id The connection that issued the
TRANSACTION_START operation [2]
tx-id The transaction id passed back to the domain
by the TRANSACTION_START operation

1.2.8 NODE_DATA

For live update the image format will contain a NODE_DATA record for each node in xenstore. For migration it will only contain a record for the nodes relating to the domain being migrated. The NODE_DATA may be related to a committed node (globally visible in xenstored) or a pending node (created or modified by a transaction for which there is also a TRANSACTION_DATA record previously present).

    0       1       2       3    octet
+-------+-------+-------+-------+
| conn-id                       |
+-------------------------------+
| tx-id                         |
+---------------+---------------+
| path-len      | value-len     |
+---------------+---------------+
| access        | perm-count    |
+---------------+---------------+
| perm1                         |
+-------------------------------+
...
+-------------------------------+
| permN                         |
+---------------+---------------+
| path
...
| value
...
Field Description
conn-id If this value is non-zero then this record
related to a pending transaction
tx-id This value should be ignored if conn-id is
zero. Otherwise it specifies the id of the
pending transaction
path-len The length (in octets) of path including the
NUL terminator
value-len The length (in octets) of value (which will
be zero for a deleted node)
access This value should be ignored if this record
does not relate to a pending transaction,
otherwise it specifies the accesses made to
the node and hence is a bitwise OR of:
0x0001: read
0x0002: written
The value will be zero for a deleted node
perm-count The number (N) of node permission specifiers
(which will be 0 for a node deleted in a
pending transaction)
perm1..N A list of zero or more node permission
specifiers (see below)
path The absolute path of the node
value The node value (which may be empty or contain
NUL octets)

A node permission specifier has the following format:

    0       1       2       3    octet
+-------+-------+-------+-------+
| perm  | flags | domid         |
+-------+-------+---------------+
Field Description
perm One of the ASCII values w, r, b or n as
specified for the SET_PERMS operation [2]
flags A bit-wise OR of:
0x01: stale permission, ignore when checking
permissions
domid The domain-id to which the permission relates

Note that perm1 defines the domain owning the node. See [4] for more explanation of node permissions.


[1] See https://xenbits.xen.org/gitweb/?p=xen.git;a=blob;f=docs/designs/non-cooperative-migration.md

[2] See https://xenbits.xen.org/gitweb/?p=xen.git;a=blob;f=docs/misc/xenstore.txt

[3] See https://xenbits.xen.org/gitweb/?p=xen.git;a=blob;f=xen/include/public/xen.h;hb=HEAD#l612

[4] https://wiki.xen.org/wiki/XenBus