view tools/ioemu/qemu-doc.texi @ 10995:08a11694b109

[qemu] Update ioemu to qemu 0.8.2.

Signed-off-by: Christian Limpach <>
date Mon Aug 07 18:25:30 2006 +0100 (2006-08-07)
parents b450f21472a0
children 00618037d37d
line source
1 \input texinfo @c -*- texinfo -*-
2 @c %**start of header
3 @setfilename
4 @settitle QEMU CPU Emulator User Documentation
5 @exampleindent 0
6 @paragraphindent 0
7 @c %**end of header
9 @iftex
10 @titlepage
11 @sp 7
12 @center @titlefont{QEMU CPU Emulator}
13 @sp 1
14 @center @titlefont{User Documentation}
15 @sp 3
16 @end titlepage
17 @end iftex
19 @ifnottex
20 @node Top
21 @top
23 @menu
24 * Introduction::
25 * Installation::
26 * QEMU PC System emulator::
27 * QEMU System emulator for non PC targets::
28 * QEMU Linux User space emulator::
29 * compilation:: Compilation from the sources
30 * Index::
31 @end menu
32 @end ifnottex
34 @contents
36 @node Introduction
37 @chapter Introduction
39 @menu
40 * intro_features:: Features
41 @end menu
43 @node intro_features
44 @section Features
46 QEMU is a FAST! processor emulator using dynamic translation to
47 achieve good emulation speed.
49 QEMU has two operating modes:
51 @itemize @minus
53 @item
54 Full system emulation. In this mode, QEMU emulates a full system (for
55 example a PC), including one or several processors and various
56 peripherals. It can be used to launch different Operating Systems
57 without rebooting the PC or to debug system code.
59 @item
60 User mode emulation (Linux host only). In this mode, QEMU can launch
61 Linux processes compiled for one CPU on another CPU. It can be used to
62 launch the Wine Windows API emulator (@url{}) or
63 to ease cross-compilation and cross-debugging.
65 @end itemize
67 QEMU can run without an host kernel driver and yet gives acceptable
68 performance.
70 For system emulation, the following hardware targets are supported:
71 @itemize
72 @item PC (x86 or x86_64 processor)
73 @item ISA PC (old style PC without PCI bus)
74 @item PREP (PowerPC processor)
75 @item G3 BW PowerMac (PowerPC processor)
76 @item Mac99 PowerMac (PowerPC processor, in progress)
77 @item Sun4m (32-bit Sparc processor)
78 @item Sun4u (64-bit Sparc processor, in progress)
79 @item Malta board (32-bit MIPS processor)
80 @item ARM Integrator/CP (ARM926E or 1026E processor)
81 @item ARM Versatile baseboard (ARM926E)
82 @end itemize
84 For user emulation, x86, PowerPC, ARM, MIPS, and Sparc32/64 CPUs are supported.
86 @node Installation
87 @chapter Installation
89 If you want to compile QEMU yourself, see @ref{compilation}.
91 @menu
92 * install_linux:: Linux
93 * install_windows:: Windows
94 * install_mac:: Macintosh
95 @end menu
97 @node install_linux
98 @section Linux
100 If a precompiled package is available for your distribution - you just
101 have to install it. Otherwise, see @ref{compilation}.
103 @node install_windows
104 @section Windows
106 Download the experimental binary installer at
107 @url{}.
109 @node install_mac
110 @section Mac OS X
112 Download the experimental binary installer at
113 @url{}.
115 @node QEMU PC System emulator
116 @chapter QEMU PC System emulator
118 @menu
119 * pcsys_introduction:: Introduction
120 * pcsys_quickstart:: Quick Start
121 * sec_invocation:: Invocation
122 * pcsys_keys:: Keys
123 * pcsys_monitor:: QEMU Monitor
124 * disk_images:: Disk Images
125 * pcsys_network:: Network emulation
126 * direct_linux_boot:: Direct Linux Boot
127 * pcsys_usb:: USB emulation
128 * gdb_usage:: GDB usage
129 * pcsys_os_specific:: Target OS specific information
130 @end menu
132 @node pcsys_introduction
133 @section Introduction
135 @c man begin DESCRIPTION
137 The QEMU PC System emulator simulates the
138 following peripherals:
140 @itemize @minus
141 @item
142 i440FX host PCI bridge and PIIX3 PCI to ISA bridge
143 @item
144 Cirrus CLGD 5446 PCI VGA card or dummy VGA card with Bochs VESA
145 extensions (hardware level, including all non standard modes).
146 @item
147 PS/2 mouse and keyboard
148 @item
149 2 PCI IDE interfaces with hard disk and CD-ROM support
150 @item
151 Floppy disk
152 @item
153 NE2000 PCI network adapters
154 @item
155 Serial ports
156 @item
157 Creative SoundBlaster 16 sound card
158 @item
159 ENSONIQ AudioPCI ES1370 sound card
160 @item
161 Adlib(OPL2) - Yamaha YM3812 compatible chip
162 @item
163 PCI UHCI USB controller and a virtual USB hub.
164 @end itemize
166 SMP is supported with up to 255 CPUs.
168 Note that adlib is only available when QEMU was configured with
169 -enable-adlib
171 QEMU uses the PC BIOS from the Bochs project and the Plex86/Bochs LGPL
174 QEMU uses YM3812 emulation by Tatsuyuki Satoh.
176 @c man end
178 @node pcsys_quickstart
179 @section Quick Start
181 Download and uncompress the linux image (@file{linux.img}) and type:
183 @example
184 qemu linux.img
185 @end example
187 Linux should boot and give you a prompt.
189 @node sec_invocation
190 @section Invocation
192 @example
193 @c man begin SYNOPSIS
194 usage: qemu [options] [disk_image]
195 @c man end
196 @end example
198 @c man begin OPTIONS
199 @var{disk_image} is a raw hard disk image for IDE hard disk 0.
201 General options:
202 @table @option
203 @item -M machine
204 Select the emulated machine (@code{-M ?} for list)
206 @item -fda file
207 @item -fdb file
208 Use @var{file} as floppy disk 0/1 image (@pxref{disk_images}). You can
209 use the host floppy by using @file{/dev/fd0} as filename.
211 @item -hda file
212 @item -hdb file
213 @item -hdc file
214 @item -hdd file
215 Use @var{file} as hard disk 0, 1, 2 or 3 image (@pxref{disk_images}).
217 @item -cdrom file
218 Use @var{file} as CD-ROM image (you cannot use @option{-hdc} and and
219 @option{-cdrom} at the same time). You can use the host CD-ROM by
220 using @file{/dev/cdrom} as filename.
222 @item -boot [a|c|d]
223 Boot on floppy (a), hard disk (c) or CD-ROM (d). Hard disk boot is
224 the default.
226 @item -snapshot
227 Write to temporary files instead of disk image files. In this case,
228 the raw disk image you use is not written back. You can however force
229 the write back by pressing @key{C-a s} (@pxref{disk_images}).
231 @item -no-fd-bootchk
232 Disable boot signature checking for floppy disks in Bochs BIOS. It may
233 be needed to boot from old floppy disks.
235 @item -m megs
236 Set virtual RAM size to @var{megs} megabytes. Default is 128 MB.
238 @item -smp n
239 Simulate an SMP system with @var{n} CPUs. On the PC target, up to 255
240 CPUs are supported.
242 @item -nographic
244 Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output. With this option,
245 you can totally disable graphical output so that QEMU is a simple
246 command line application. The emulated serial port is redirected on
247 the console. Therefore, you can still use QEMU to debug a Linux kernel
248 with a serial console.
250 @item -vnc d
252 Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output. With this option,
253 you can have QEMU listen on VNC display @var{d} and redirect the VGA
254 display over the VNC session. It is very useful to enable the usb
255 tablet device when using this option (option @option{-usbdevice
256 tablet}). When using the VNC display, you must use the @option{-k}
257 option to set the keyboard layout.
259 @item -k language
261 Use keyboard layout @var{language} (for example @code{fr} for
262 French). This option is only needed where it is not easy to get raw PC
263 keycodes (e.g. on Macs, with some X11 servers or with a VNC
264 display). You don't normally need to use it on PC/Linux or PC/Windows
265 hosts.
267 The available layouts are:
268 @example
269 ar de-ch es fo fr-ca hu ja mk no pt-br sv
270 da en-gb et fr fr-ch is lt nl pl ru th
271 de en-us fi fr-be hr it lv nl-be pt sl tr
272 @end example
274 The default is @code{en-us}.
276 @item -audio-help
278 Will show the audio subsystem help: list of drivers, tunable
279 parameters.
281 @item -soundhw card1,card2,... or -soundhw all
283 Enable audio and selected sound hardware. Use ? to print all
284 available sound hardware.
286 @example
287 qemu -soundhw sb16,adlib hda
288 qemu -soundhw es1370 hda
289 qemu -soundhw all hda
290 qemu -soundhw ?
291 @end example
293 @item -localtime
294 Set the real time clock to local time (the default is to UTC
295 time). This option is needed to have correct date in MS-DOS or
296 Windows.
298 @item -full-screen
299 Start in full screen.
301 @item -pidfile file
302 Store the QEMU process PID in @var{file}. It is useful if you launch QEMU
303 from a script.
305 @item -win2k-hack
306 Use it when installing Windows 2000 to avoid a disk full bug. After
307 Windows 2000 is installed, you no longer need this option (this option
308 slows down the IDE transfers).
310 @end table
312 USB options:
313 @table @option
315 @item -usb
316 Enable the USB driver (will be the default soon)
318 @item -usbdevice devname
319 Add the USB device @var{devname}. @xref{usb_devices}.
320 @end table
322 Network options:
324 @table @option
326 @item -net nic[,vlan=n][,macaddr=addr][,model=type]
327 Create a new Network Interface Card and connect it to VLAN @var{n} (@var{n}
328 = 0 is the default). The NIC is currently an NE2000 on the PC
329 target. Optionally, the MAC address can be changed. If no
330 @option{-net} option is specified, a single NIC is created.
331 Qemu can emulate several different models of network card. Valid values for
332 @var{type} are @code{ne2k_pci}, @code{ne2k_isa}, @code{rtl8139},
333 @code{smc91c111} and @code{lance}. Not all devices are supported on all
334 targets.
336 @item -net user[,vlan=n][,hostname=name]
337 Use the user mode network stack which requires no administrator
338 priviledge to run. @option{hostname=name} can be used to specify the client
339 hostname reported by the builtin DHCP server.
341 @item -net tap[,vlan=n][,fd=h][,ifname=name][,script=file]
342 Connect the host TAP network interface @var{name} to VLAN @var{n} and
343 use the network script @var{file} to configure it. The default
344 network script is @file{/etc/qemu-ifup}. If @var{name} is not
345 provided, the OS automatically provides one. @option{fd=h} can be
346 used to specify the handle of an already opened host TAP interface. Example:
348 @example
349 qemu linux.img -net nic -net tap
350 @end example
352 More complicated example (two NICs, each one connected to a TAP device)
353 @example
354 qemu linux.img -net nic,vlan=0 -net tap,vlan=0,ifname=tap0 \
355 -net nic,vlan=1 -net tap,vlan=1,ifname=tap1
356 @end example
359 @item -net socket[,vlan=n][,fd=h][,listen=[host]:port][,connect=host:port]
361 Connect the VLAN @var{n} to a remote VLAN in another QEMU virtual
362 machine using a TCP socket connection. If @option{listen} is
363 specified, QEMU waits for incoming connections on @var{port}
364 (@var{host} is optional). @option{connect} is used to connect to
365 another QEMU instance using the @option{listen} option. @option{fd=h}
366 specifies an already opened TCP socket.
368 Example:
369 @example
370 # launch a first QEMU instance
371 qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
372 -net socket,listen=:1234
373 # connect the VLAN 0 of this instance to the VLAN 0
374 # of the first instance
375 qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
376 -net socket,connect=
377 @end example
379 @item -net socket[,vlan=n][,fd=h][,mcast=maddr:port]
381 Create a VLAN @var{n} shared with another QEMU virtual
382 machines using a UDP multicast socket, effectively making a bus for
383 every QEMU with same multicast address @var{maddr} and @var{port}.
384 NOTES:
385 @enumerate
386 @item
387 Several QEMU can be running on different hosts and share same bus (assuming
388 correct multicast setup for these hosts).
389 @item
390 mcast support is compatible with User Mode Linux (argument @option{eth@var{N}=mcast}), see
391 @url{}.
392 @item Use @option{fd=h} to specify an already opened UDP multicast socket.
393 @end enumerate
395 Example:
396 @example
397 # launch one QEMU instance
398 qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
399 -net socket,mcast=
400 # launch another QEMU instance on same "bus"
401 qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
402 -net socket,mcast=
403 # launch yet another QEMU instance on same "bus"
404 qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:58 \
405 -net socket,mcast=
406 @end example
408 Example (User Mode Linux compat.):
409 @example
410 # launch QEMU instance (note mcast address selected
411 # is UML's default)
412 qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
413 -net socket,mcast=
414 # launch UML
415 /path/to/linux ubd0=/path/to/root_fs eth0=mcast
416 @end example
418 @item -net none
419 Indicate that no network devices should be configured. It is used to
420 override the default configuration (@option{-net nic -net user}) which
421 is activated if no @option{-net} options are provided.
423 @item -tftp prefix
424 When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in TFTP
425 server. All filenames beginning with @var{prefix} can be downloaded
426 from the host to the guest using a TFTP client. The TFTP client on the
427 guest must be configured in binary mode (use the command @code{bin} of
428 the Unix TFTP client). The host IP address on the guest is as usual
431 @item -smb dir
432 When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in SMB
433 server so that Windows OSes can access to the host files in @file{dir}
434 transparently.
436 In the guest Windows OS, the line:
437 @example
438 smbserver
439 @end example
440 must be added in the file @file{C:\WINDOWS\LMHOSTS} (for windows 9x/Me)
441 or @file{C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\ETC\LMHOSTS} (Windows NT/2000).
443 Then @file{dir} can be accessed in @file{\\smbserver\qemu}.
445 Note that a SAMBA server must be installed on the host OS in
446 @file{/usr/sbin/smbd}. QEMU was tested succesfully with smbd version
447 2.2.7a from the Red Hat 9 and version 3.0.10-1.fc3 from Fedora Core 3.
449 @item -redir [tcp|udp]:host-port:[guest-host]:guest-port
451 When using the user mode network stack, redirect incoming TCP or UDP
452 connections to the host port @var{host-port} to the guest
453 @var{guest-host} on guest port @var{guest-port}. If @var{guest-host}
454 is not specified, its value is (default address given by the
455 built-in DHCP server).
457 For example, to redirect host X11 connection from screen 1 to guest
458 screen 0, use the following:
460 @example
461 # on the host
462 qemu -redir tcp:6001::6000 [...]
463 # this host xterm should open in the guest X11 server
464 xterm -display :1
465 @end example
467 To redirect telnet connections from host port 5555 to telnet port on
468 the guest, use the following:
470 @example
471 # on the host
472 qemu -redir tcp:5555::23 [...]
473 telnet localhost 5555
474 @end example
476 Then when you use on the host @code{telnet localhost 5555}, you
477 connect to the guest telnet server.
479 @end table
481 Linux boot specific: When using these options, you can use a given
482 Linux kernel without installing it in the disk image. It can be useful
483 for easier testing of various kernels.
485 @table @option
487 @item -kernel bzImage
488 Use @var{bzImage} as kernel image.
490 @item -append cmdline
491 Use @var{cmdline} as kernel command line
493 @item -initrd file
494 Use @var{file} as initial ram disk.
496 @end table
498 Debug/Expert options:
499 @table @option
501 @item -serial dev
502 Redirect the virtual serial port to host character device
503 @var{dev}. The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and
504 @code{stdio} in non graphical mode.
506 This option can be used several times to simulate up to 4 serials
507 ports.
509 Available character devices are:
510 @table @code
511 @item vc
512 Virtual console
513 @item pty
514 [Linux only] Pseudo TTY (a new PTY is automatically allocated)
515 @item null
516 void device
517 @item /dev/XXX
518 [Linux only] Use host tty, e.g. @file{/dev/ttyS0}. The host serial port
519 parameters are set according to the emulated ones.
520 @item /dev/parportN
521 [Linux only, parallel port only] Use host parallel port
522 @var{N}. Currently only SPP parallel port features can be used.
523 @item file:filename
524 Write output to filename. No character can be read.
525 @item stdio
526 [Unix only] standard input/output
527 @item pipe:filename
528 name pipe @var{filename}
529 @item COMn
530 [Windows only] Use host serial port @var{n}
531 @item udp:[remote_host]:remote_port[@@[src_ip]:src_port]
532 This implements UDP Net Console. When @var{remote_host} or @var{src_ip} are not specified they default to @code{}. When not using a specifed @var{src_port} a random port is automatically chosen.
534 If you just want a simple readonly console you can use @code{netcat} or
535 @code{nc}, by starting qemu with: @code{-serial udp::4555} and nc as:
536 @code{nc -u -l -p 4555}. Any time qemu writes something to that port it
537 will appear in the netconsole session.
539 If you plan to send characters back via netconsole or you want to stop
540 and start qemu a lot of times, you should have qemu use the same
541 source port each time by using something like @code{-serial
542 udp::4555@@:4556} to qemu. Another approach is to use a patched
543 version of netcat which can listen to a TCP port and send and receive
544 characters via udp. If you have a patched version of netcat which
545 activates telnet remote echo and single char transfer, then you can
546 use the following options to step up a netcat redirector to allow
547 telnet on port 5555 to access the qemu port.
548 @table @code
549 @item Qemu Options:
550 -serial udp::4555@@:4556
551 @item netcat options:
552 -u -P 4555 -L -t -p 5555 -I -T
553 @item telnet options:
554 localhost 5555
555 @end table
558 @item tcp:[host]:port[,server][,nowait]
559 The TCP Net Console has two modes of operation. It can send the serial
560 I/O to a location or wait for a connection from a location. By default
561 the TCP Net Console is sent to @var{host} at the @var{port}. If you use
562 the @var{,server} option QEMU will wait for a client socket application
563 to connect to the port before continuing, unless the @code{,nowait}
564 option was specified. If @var{host} is omitted, is assumed. Only
565 one TCP connection at a time is accepted. You can use @code{telnet} to
566 connect to the corresponding character device.
567 @table @code
568 @item Example to send tcp console to port 4444
569 -serial tcp:
570 @item Example to listen and wait on port 4444 for connection
571 -serial tcp::4444,server
572 @item Example to not wait and listen on ip port 4444
573 -serial tcp:,server,nowait
574 @end table
576 @item telnet:host:port[,server][,nowait]
577 The telnet protocol is used instead of raw tcp sockets. The options
578 work the same as if you had specified @code{-serial tcp}. The
579 difference is that the port acts like a telnet server or client using
580 telnet option negotiation. This will also allow you to send the
581 MAGIC_SYSRQ sequence if you use a telnet that supports sending the break
582 sequence. Typically in unix telnet you do it with Control-] and then
583 type "send break" followed by pressing the enter key.
585 @end table
587 @item -parallel dev
588 Redirect the virtual parallel port to host device @var{dev} (same
589 devices as the serial port). On Linux hosts, @file{/dev/parportN} can
590 be used to use hardware devices connected on the corresponding host
591 parallel port.
593 This option can be used several times to simulate up to 3 parallel
594 ports.
596 @item -monitor dev
597 Redirect the monitor to host device @var{dev} (same devices as the
598 serial port).
599 The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and @code{stdio} in
600 non graphical mode.
602 @item -s
603 Wait gdb connection to port 1234 (@pxref{gdb_usage}).
604 @item -p port
605 Change gdb connection port.
606 @item -S
607 Do not start CPU at startup (you must type 'c' in the monitor).
608 @item -d
609 Output log in /tmp/qemu.log
610 @item -hdachs c,h,s,[,t]
611 Force hard disk 0 physical geometry (1 <= @var{c} <= 16383, 1 <=
612 @var{h} <= 16, 1 <= @var{s} <= 63) and optionally force the BIOS
613 translation mode (@var{t}=none, lba or auto). Usually QEMU can guess
614 all thoses parameters. This option is useful for old MS-DOS disk
615 images.
617 @item -std-vga
618 Simulate a standard VGA card with Bochs VBE extensions (default is
619 Cirrus Logic GD5446 PCI VGA). If your guest OS supports the VESA 2.0
620 VBE extensions (e.g. Windows XP) and if you want to use high
621 resolution modes (>= 1280x1024x16) then you should use this option.
623 @item -no-acpi
624 Disable ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) support. Use
625 it if your guest OS complains about ACPI problems (PC target machine
626 only).
628 @item -loadvm file
629 Start right away with a saved state (@code{loadvm} in monitor)
630 @end table
632 @c man end
634 @node pcsys_keys
635 @section Keys
637 @c man begin OPTIONS
639 During the graphical emulation, you can use the following keys:
640 @table @key
641 @item Ctrl-Alt-f
642 Toggle full screen
644 @item Ctrl-Alt-n
645 Switch to virtual console 'n'. Standard console mappings are:
646 @table @emph
647 @item 1
648 Target system display
649 @item 2
650 Monitor
651 @item 3
652 Serial port
653 @end table
655 @item Ctrl-Alt
656 Toggle mouse and keyboard grab.
657 @end table
659 In the virtual consoles, you can use @key{Ctrl-Up}, @key{Ctrl-Down},
660 @key{Ctrl-PageUp} and @key{Ctrl-PageDown} to move in the back log.
662 During emulation, if you are using the @option{-nographic} option, use
663 @key{Ctrl-a h} to get terminal commands:
665 @table @key
666 @item Ctrl-a h
667 Print this help
668 @item Ctrl-a x
669 Exit emulatior
670 @item Ctrl-a s
671 Save disk data back to file (if -snapshot)
672 @item Ctrl-a b
673 Send break (magic sysrq in Linux)
674 @item Ctrl-a c
675 Switch between console and monitor
676 @item Ctrl-a Ctrl-a
677 Send Ctrl-a
678 @end table
679 @c man end
681 @ignore
683 @c man begin SEEALSO
684 The HTML documentation of QEMU for more precise information and Linux
685 user mode emulator invocation.
686 @c man end
688 @c man begin AUTHOR
689 Fabrice Bellard
690 @c man end
692 @end ignore
694 @node pcsys_monitor
695 @section QEMU Monitor
697 The QEMU monitor is used to give complex commands to the QEMU
698 emulator. You can use it to:
700 @itemize @minus
702 @item
703 Remove or insert removable medias images
704 (such as CD-ROM or floppies)
706 @item
707 Freeze/unfreeze the Virtual Machine (VM) and save or restore its state
708 from a disk file.
710 @item Inspect the VM state without an external debugger.
712 @end itemize
714 @subsection Commands
716 The following commands are available:
718 @table @option
720 @item help or ? [cmd]
721 Show the help for all commands or just for command @var{cmd}.
723 @item commit
724 Commit changes to the disk images (if -snapshot is used)
726 @item info subcommand
727 show various information about the system state
729 @table @option
730 @item info network
731 show the various VLANs and the associated devices
732 @item info block
733 show the block devices
734 @item info registers
735 show the cpu registers
736 @item info history
737 show the command line history
738 @item info pci
739 show emulated PCI device
740 @item info usb
741 show USB devices plugged on the virtual USB hub
742 @item info usbhost
743 show all USB host devices
744 @item info capture
745 show information about active capturing
746 @end table
748 @item q or quit
749 Quit the emulator.
751 @item eject [-f] device
752 Eject a removable media (use -f to force it).
754 @item change device filename
755 Change a removable media.
757 @item screendump filename
758 Save screen into PPM image @var{filename}.
760 @item wavcapture filename [frequency [bits [channels]]]
761 Capture audio into @var{filename}. Using sample rate @var{frequency}
762 bits per sample @var{bits} and number of channels @var{channels}.
764 Defaults:
765 @itemize @minus
766 @item Sample rate = 44100 Hz - CD quality
767 @item Bits = 16
768 @item Number of channels = 2 - Stereo
769 @end itemize
771 @item stopcapture index
772 Stop capture with a given @var{index}, index can be obtained with
773 @example
774 info capture
775 @end example
777 @item log item1[,...]
778 Activate logging of the specified items to @file{/tmp/qemu.log}.
780 @item savevm filename
781 Save the whole virtual machine state to @var{filename}.
783 @item loadvm filename
784 Restore the whole virtual machine state from @var{filename}.
786 @item stop
787 Stop emulation.
789 @item c or cont
790 Resume emulation.
792 @item gdbserver [port]
793 Start gdbserver session (default port=1234)
795 @item x/fmt addr
796 Virtual memory dump starting at @var{addr}.
798 @item xp /fmt addr
799 Physical memory dump starting at @var{addr}.
801 @var{fmt} is a format which tells the command how to format the
802 data. Its syntax is: @option{/@{count@}@{format@}@{size@}}
804 @table @var
805 @item count
806 is the number of items to be dumped.
808 @item format
809 can be x (hexa), d (signed decimal), u (unsigned decimal), o (octal),
810 c (char) or i (asm instruction).
812 @item size
813 can be b (8 bits), h (16 bits), w (32 bits) or g (64 bits). On x86,
814 @code{h} or @code{w} can be specified with the @code{i} format to
815 respectively select 16 or 32 bit code instruction size.
817 @end table
819 Examples:
820 @itemize
821 @item
822 Dump 10 instructions at the current instruction pointer:
823 @example
824 (qemu) x/10i $eip
825 0x90107063: ret
826 0x90107064: sti
827 0x90107065: lea 0x0(%esi,1),%esi
828 0x90107069: lea 0x0(%edi,1),%edi
829 0x90107070: ret
830 0x90107071: jmp 0x90107080
831 0x90107073: nop
832 0x90107074: nop
833 0x90107075: nop
834 0x90107076: nop
835 @end example
837 @item
838 Dump 80 16 bit values at the start of the video memory.
839 @smallexample
840 (qemu) xp/80hx 0xb8000
841 0x000b8000: 0x0b50 0x0b6c 0x0b65 0x0b78 0x0b38 0x0b36 0x0b2f 0x0b42
842 0x000b8010: 0x0b6f 0x0b63 0x0b68 0x0b73 0x0b20 0x0b56 0x0b47 0x0b41
843 0x000b8020: 0x0b42 0x0b69 0x0b6f 0x0b73 0x0b20 0x0b63 0x0b75 0x0b72
844 0x000b8030: 0x0b72 0x0b65 0x0b6e 0x0b74 0x0b2d 0x0b63 0x0b76 0x0b73
845 0x000b8040: 0x0b20 0x0b30 0x0b35 0x0b20 0x0b4e 0x0b6f 0x0b76 0x0b20
846 0x000b8050: 0x0b32 0x0b30 0x0b30 0x0b33 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
847 0x000b8060: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
848 0x000b8070: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
849 0x000b8080: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
850 0x000b8090: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
851 @end smallexample
852 @end itemize
854 @item p or print/fmt expr
856 Print expression value. Only the @var{format} part of @var{fmt} is
857 used.
859 @item sendkey keys
861 Send @var{keys} to the emulator. Use @code{-} to press several keys
862 simultaneously. Example:
863 @example
864 sendkey ctrl-alt-f1
865 @end example
867 This command is useful to send keys that your graphical user interface
868 intercepts at low level, such as @code{ctrl-alt-f1} in X Window.
870 @item system_reset
872 Reset the system.
874 @item usb_add devname
876 Add the USB device @var{devname}. For details of available devices see
877 @ref{usb_devices}
879 @item usb_del devname
881 Remove the USB device @var{devname} from the QEMU virtual USB
882 hub. @var{devname} has the syntax @code{bus.addr}. Use the monitor
883 command @code{info usb} to see the devices you can remove.
885 @end table
887 @subsection Integer expressions
889 The monitor understands integers expressions for every integer
890 argument. You can use register names to get the value of specifics
891 CPU registers by prefixing them with @emph{$}.
893 @node disk_images
894 @section Disk Images
896 Since version 0.6.1, QEMU supports many disk image formats, including
897 growable disk images (their size increase as non empty sectors are
898 written), compressed and encrypted disk images.
900 @menu
901 * disk_images_quickstart:: Quick start for disk image creation
902 * disk_images_snapshot_mode:: Snapshot mode
903 * qemu_img_invocation:: qemu-img Invocation
904 * disk_images_fat_images:: Virtual FAT disk images
905 @end menu
907 @node disk_images_quickstart
908 @subsection Quick start for disk image creation
910 You can create a disk image with the command:
911 @example
912 qemu-img create myimage.img mysize
913 @end example
914 where @var{myimage.img} is the disk image filename and @var{mysize} is its
915 size in kilobytes. You can add an @code{M} suffix to give the size in
916 megabytes and a @code{G} suffix for gigabytes.
918 See @ref{qemu_img_invocation} for more information.
920 @node disk_images_snapshot_mode
921 @subsection Snapshot mode
923 If you use the option @option{-snapshot}, all disk images are
924 considered as read only. When sectors in written, they are written in
925 a temporary file created in @file{/tmp}. You can however force the
926 write back to the raw disk images by using the @code{commit} monitor
927 command (or @key{C-a s} in the serial console).
929 @node qemu_img_invocation
930 @subsection @code{qemu-img} Invocation
932 @include qemu-img.texi
934 @node disk_images_fat_images
935 @subsection Virtual FAT disk images
937 QEMU can automatically create a virtual FAT disk image from a
938 directory tree. In order to use it, just type:
940 @example
941 qemu linux.img -hdb fat:/my_directory
942 @end example
944 Then you access access to all the files in the @file{/my_directory}
945 directory without having to copy them in a disk image or to export
946 them via SAMBA or NFS. The default access is @emph{read-only}.
948 Floppies can be emulated with the @code{:floppy:} option:
950 @example
951 qemu linux.img -fda fat:floppy:/my_directory
952 @end example
954 A read/write support is available for testing (beta stage) with the
955 @code{:rw:} option:
957 @example
958 qemu linux.img -fda fat:floppy:rw:/my_directory
959 @end example
961 What you should @emph{never} do:
962 @itemize
963 @item use non-ASCII filenames ;
964 @item use "-snapshot" together with ":rw:" ;
965 @item expect it to work when loadvm'ing ;
966 @item write to the FAT directory on the host system while accessing it with the guest system.
967 @end itemize
969 @node pcsys_network
970 @section Network emulation
972 QEMU can simulate several networks cards (NE2000 boards on the PC
973 target) and can connect them to an arbitrary number of Virtual Local
974 Area Networks (VLANs). Host TAP devices can be connected to any QEMU
975 VLAN. VLAN can be connected between separate instances of QEMU to
976 simulate large networks. For simpler usage, a non priviledged user mode
977 network stack can replace the TAP device to have a basic network
978 connection.
980 @subsection VLANs
982 QEMU simulates several VLANs. A VLAN can be symbolised as a virtual
983 connection between several network devices. These devices can be for
984 example QEMU virtual Ethernet cards or virtual Host ethernet devices
985 (TAP devices).
987 @subsection Using TAP network interfaces
989 This is the standard way to connect QEMU to a real network. QEMU adds
990 a virtual network device on your host (called @code{tapN}), and you
991 can then configure it as if it was a real ethernet card.
993 As an example, you can download the @file{linux-test-xxx.tar.gz}
994 archive and copy the script @file{qemu-ifup} in @file{/etc} and
995 configure properly @code{sudo} so that the command @code{ifconfig}
996 contained in @file{qemu-ifup} can be executed as root. You must verify
997 that your host kernel supports the TAP network interfaces: the
998 device @file{/dev/net/tun} must be present.
1000 See @ref{direct_linux_boot} to have an example of network use with a
1001 Linux distribution and @ref{sec_invocation} to have examples of
1002 command lines using the TAP network interfaces.
1004 @subsection Using the user mode network stack
1006 By using the option @option{-net user} (default configuration if no
1007 @option{-net} option is specified), QEMU uses a completely user mode
1008 network stack (you don't need root priviledge to use the virtual
1009 network). The virtual network configuration is the following:
1011 @example
1013 QEMU VLAN <------> Firewall/DHCP server <-----> Internet
1014 | (
1016 ----> DNS server (
1018 ----> SMB server (
1019 @end example
1021 The QEMU VM behaves as if it was behind a firewall which blocks all
1022 incoming connections. You can use a DHCP client to automatically
1023 configure the network in the QEMU VM. The DHCP server assign addresses
1024 to the hosts starting from
1026 In order to check that the user mode network is working, you can ping
1027 the address and verify that you got an address in the range
1028 10.0.2.x from the QEMU virtual DHCP server.
1030 Note that @code{ping} is not supported reliably to the internet as it
1031 would require root priviledges. It means you can only ping the local
1032 router (
1034 When using the built-in TFTP server, the router is also the TFTP
1035 server.
1037 When using the @option{-redir} option, TCP or UDP connections can be
1038 redirected from the host to the guest. It allows for example to
1039 redirect X11, telnet or SSH connections.
1041 @subsection Connecting VLANs between QEMU instances
1043 Using the @option{-net socket} option, it is possible to make VLANs
1044 that span several QEMU instances. See @ref{sec_invocation} to have a
1045 basic example.
1047 @node direct_linux_boot
1048 @section Direct Linux Boot
1050 This section explains how to launch a Linux kernel inside QEMU without
1051 having to make a full bootable image. It is very useful for fast Linux
1052 kernel testing. The QEMU network configuration is also explained.
1054 @enumerate
1055 @item
1056 Download the archive @file{linux-test-xxx.tar.gz} containing a Linux
1057 kernel and a disk image.
1059 @item Optional: If you want network support (for example to launch X11 examples), you
1060 must copy the script @file{qemu-ifup} in @file{/etc} and configure
1061 properly @code{sudo} so that the command @code{ifconfig} contained in
1062 @file{qemu-ifup} can be executed as root. You must verify that your host
1063 kernel supports the TUN/TAP network interfaces: the device
1064 @file{/dev/net/tun} must be present.
1066 When network is enabled, there is a virtual network connection between
1067 the host kernel and the emulated kernel. The emulated kernel is seen
1068 from the host kernel at IP address and the host kernel is
1069 seen from the emulated kernel at IP address
1071 @item Launch @code{}. You should have the following output:
1073 @smallexample
1074 > ./
1075 Connected to host network interface: tun0
1076 Linux version 2.4.21 (bellard@@voyager.localdomain) (gcc version 3.2.2 20030222 @/(Red Hat @/Linux 3.2.2-5)) #5 Tue Nov 11 18:18:53 CET 2003
1077 BIOS-provided physical RAM map:
1078 BIOS-e801: 0000000000000000 - 000000000009f000 (usable)
1079 BIOS-e801: 0000000000100000 - 0000000002000000 (usable)
1080 32MB LOWMEM available.
1081 On node 0 totalpages: 8192
1082 zone(0): 4096 pages.
1083 zone(1): 4096 pages.
1084 zone(2): 0 pages.
1085 Kernel command line: root=/dev/hda sb=0x220,5,1,5 ide2=noprobe ide3=noprobe ide4=noprobe @/ide5=noprobe console=ttyS0
1086 ide_setup: ide2=noprobe
1087 ide_setup: ide3=noprobe
1088 ide_setup: ide4=noprobe
1089 ide_setup: ide5=noprobe
1090 Initializing CPU#0
1091 Detected 2399.621 MHz processor.
1092 Console: colour EGA 80x25
1093 Calibrating delay loop... 4744.80 BogoMIPS
1094 Memory: 28872k/32768k available (1210k kernel code, 3508k reserved, 266k data, 64k init, @/0k highmem)
1095 Dentry cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
1096 Inode cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
1097 Mount cache hash table entries: 512 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
1098 Buffer-cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
1099 Page-cache hash table entries: 8192 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
1100 CPU: Intel Pentium Pro stepping 03
1101 Checking 'hlt' instruction... OK.
1102 POSIX conformance testing by UNIFIX
1103 Linux NET4.0 for Linux 2.4
1104 Based upon Swansea University Computer Society NET3.039
1105 Initializing RT netlink socket
1106 apm: BIOS not found.
1107 Starting kswapd
1108 Journalled Block Device driver loaded
1109 Detected PS/2 Mouse Port.
1110 pty: 256 Unix98 ptys configured
1111 Serial driver version 5.05c (2001-07-08) with no serial options enabled
1112 ttyS00 at 0x03f8 (irq = 4) is a 16450
1113 ne.c:v1.10 9/23/94 Donald Becker (
1114 Last modified Nov 1, 2000 by Paul Gortmaker
1115 NE*000 ethercard probe at 0x300: 52 54 00 12 34 56
1116 eth0: NE2000 found at 0x300, using IRQ 9.
1117 RAMDISK driver initialized: 16 RAM disks of 4096K size 1024 blocksize
1118 Uniform Multi-Platform E-IDE driver Revision: 7.00beta4-2.4
1119 ide: Assuming 50MHz system bus speed for PIO modes; override with idebus=xx
1120 hda: QEMU HARDDISK, ATA DISK drive
1121 ide0 at 0x1f0-0x1f7,0x3f6 on irq 14
1122 hda: attached ide-disk driver.
1123 hda: 20480 sectors (10 MB) w/256KiB Cache, CHS=20/16/63
1124 Partition check:
1125 hda:
1126 Soundblaster audio driver Copyright (C) by Hannu Savolainen 1993-1996
1127 NET4: Linux TCP/IP 1.0 for NET4.0
1128 IP Protocols: ICMP, UDP, TCP, IGMP
1129 IP: routing cache hash table of 512 buckets, 4Kbytes
1130 TCP: Hash tables configured (established 2048 bind 4096)
1131 NET4: Unix domain sockets 1.0/SMP for Linux NET4.0.
1132 EXT2-fs warning: mounting unchecked fs, running e2fsck is recommended
1133 VFS: Mounted root (ext2 filesystem).
1134 Freeing unused kernel memory: 64k freed
1136 Linux version 2.4.21 (bellard@@voyager.localdomain) (gcc version 3.2.2 20030222 @/(Red Hat @/Linux 3.2.2-5)) #5 Tue Nov 11 18:18:53 CET 2003
1138 QEMU Linux test distribution (based on Redhat 9)
1140 Type 'exit' to halt the system
1142 sh-2.05b#
1143 @end smallexample
1145 @item
1146 Then you can play with the kernel inside the virtual serial console. You
1147 can launch @code{ls} for example. Type @key{Ctrl-a h} to have an help
1148 about the keys you can type inside the virtual serial console. In
1149 particular, use @key{Ctrl-a x} to exit QEMU and use @key{Ctrl-a b} as
1150 the Magic SysRq key.
1152 @item
1153 If the network is enabled, launch the script @file{/etc/linuxrc} in the
1154 emulator (don't forget the leading dot):
1155 @example
1156 . /etc/linuxrc
1157 @end example
1159 Then enable X11 connections on your PC from the emulated Linux:
1160 @example
1161 xhost +
1162 @end example
1164 You can now launch @file{xterm} or @file{xlogo} and verify that you have
1165 a real Virtual Linux system !
1167 @end enumerate
1169 NOTES:
1170 @enumerate
1171 @item
1172 A 2.5.74 kernel is also included in the archive. Just
1173 replace the bzImage in to try it.
1175 @item
1176 In order to exit cleanly from qemu, you can do a @emph{shutdown} inside
1177 qemu. qemu will automatically exit when the Linux shutdown is done.
1179 @item
1180 You can boot slightly faster by disabling the probe of non present IDE
1181 interfaces. To do so, add the following options on the kernel command
1182 line:
1183 @example
1184 ide1=noprobe ide2=noprobe ide3=noprobe ide4=noprobe ide5=noprobe
1185 @end example
1187 @item
1188 The example disk image is a modified version of the one made by Kevin
1189 Lawton for the plex86 Project (@url{}).
1191 @end enumerate
1193 @node pcsys_usb
1194 @section USB emulation
1196 QEMU emulates a PCI UHCI USB controller. You can virtually plug
1197 virtual USB devices or real host USB devices (experimental, works only
1198 on Linux hosts). Qemu will automatically create and connect virtual USB hubs
1199 as neccessary to connect multiple USB devices.
1201 @menu
1202 * usb_devices::
1203 * host_usb_devices::
1204 @end menu
1205 @node usb_devices
1206 @subsection Connecting USB devices
1208 USB devices can be connected with the @option{-usbdevice} commandline option
1209 or the @code{usb_add} monitor command. Available devices are:
1211 @table @var
1212 @item @code{mouse}
1213 Virtual Mouse. This will override the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.
1214 @item @code{tablet}
1215 Pointer device that uses abolsute coordinates (like a touchscreen).
1216 This means qemu is able to report the mouse position without having
1217 to grab the mouse. Also overrides the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.
1218 @item @code{disk:file}
1219 Mass storage device based on @var{file} (@pxref{disk_images})
1220 @item @code{host:bus.addr}
1221 Pass through the host device identified by @var{bus.addr}
1222 (Linux only)
1223 @item @code{host:vendor_id:product_id}
1224 Pass through the host device identified by @var{vendor_id:product_id}
1225 (Linux only)
1226 @end table
1228 @node host_usb_devices
1229 @subsection Using host USB devices on a Linux host
1231 WARNING: this is an experimental feature. QEMU will slow down when
1232 using it. USB devices requiring real time streaming (i.e. USB Video
1233 Cameras) are not supported yet.
1235 @enumerate
1236 @item If you use an early Linux 2.4 kernel, verify that no Linux driver
1237 is actually using the USB device. A simple way to do that is simply to
1238 disable the corresponding kernel module by renaming it from @file{mydriver.o}
1239 to @file{mydriver.o.disabled}.
1241 @item Verify that @file{/proc/bus/usb} is working (most Linux distributions should enable it by default). You should see something like that:
1242 @example
1243 ls /proc/bus/usb
1244 001 devices drivers
1245 @end example
1247 @item Since only root can access to the USB devices directly, you can either launch QEMU as root or change the permissions of the USB devices you want to use. For testing, the following suffices:
1248 @example
1249 chown -R myuid /proc/bus/usb
1250 @end example
1252 @item Launch QEMU and do in the monitor:
1253 @example
1254 info usbhost
1255 Device 1.2, speed 480 Mb/s
1256 Class 00: USB device 1234:5678, USB DISK
1257 @end example
1258 You should see the list of the devices you can use (Never try to use
1259 hubs, it won't work).
1261 @item Add the device in QEMU by using:
1262 @example
1263 usb_add host:1234:5678
1264 @end example
1266 Normally the guest OS should report that a new USB device is
1267 plugged. You can use the option @option{-usbdevice} to do the same.
1269 @item Now you can try to use the host USB device in QEMU.
1271 @end enumerate
1273 When relaunching QEMU, you may have to unplug and plug again the USB
1274 device to make it work again (this is a bug).
1276 @node gdb_usage
1277 @section GDB usage
1279 QEMU has a primitive support to work with gdb, so that you can do
1280 'Ctrl-C' while the virtual machine is running and inspect its state.
1282 In order to use gdb, launch qemu with the '-s' option. It will wait for a
1283 gdb connection:
1284 @example
1285 > qemu -s -kernel arch/i386/boot/bzImage -hda root-2.4.20.img \
1286 -append "root=/dev/hda"
1287 Connected to host network interface: tun0
1288 Waiting gdb connection on port 1234
1289 @end example
1291 Then launch gdb on the 'vmlinux' executable:
1292 @example
1293 > gdb vmlinux
1294 @end example
1296 In gdb, connect to QEMU:
1297 @example
1298 (gdb) target remote localhost:1234
1299 @end example
1301 Then you can use gdb normally. For example, type 'c' to launch the kernel:
1302 @example
1303 (gdb) c
1304 @end example
1306 Here are some useful tips in order to use gdb on system code:
1308 @enumerate
1309 @item
1310 Use @code{info reg} to display all the CPU registers.
1311 @item
1312 Use @code{x/10i $eip} to display the code at the PC position.
1313 @item
1314 Use @code{set architecture i8086} to dump 16 bit code. Then use
1315 @code{x/10i $cs*16+$eip} to dump the code at the PC position.
1316 @end enumerate
1318 @node pcsys_os_specific
1319 @section Target OS specific information
1321 @subsection Linux
1323 To have access to SVGA graphic modes under X11, use the @code{vesa} or
1324 the @code{cirrus} X11 driver. For optimal performances, use 16 bit
1325 color depth in the guest and the host OS.
1327 When using a 2.6 guest Linux kernel, you should add the option
1328 @code{clock=pit} on the kernel command line because the 2.6 Linux
1329 kernels make very strict real time clock checks by default that QEMU
1330 cannot simulate exactly.
1332 When using a 2.6 guest Linux kernel, verify that the 4G/4G patch is
1333 not activated because QEMU is slower with this patch. The QEMU
1334 Accelerator Module is also much slower in this case. Earlier Fedora
1335 Core 3 Linux kernel (< 2.6.9-1.724_FC3) were known to incorporte this
1336 patch by default. Newer kernels don't have it.
1338 @subsection Windows
1340 If you have a slow host, using Windows 95 is better as it gives the
1341 best speed. Windows 2000 is also a good choice.
1343 @subsubsection SVGA graphic modes support
1345 QEMU emulates a Cirrus Logic GD5446 Video
1346 card. All Windows versions starting from Windows 95 should recognize
1347 and use this graphic card. For optimal performances, use 16 bit color
1348 depth in the guest and the host OS.
1350 If you are using Windows XP as guest OS and if you want to use high
1351 resolution modes which the Cirrus Logic BIOS does not support (i.e. >=
1352 1280x1024x16), then you should use the VESA VBE virtual graphic card
1353 (option @option{-std-vga}).
1355 @subsubsection CPU usage reduction
1357 Windows 9x does not correctly use the CPU HLT
1358 instruction. The result is that it takes host CPU cycles even when
1359 idle. You can install the utility from
1360 @url{} to solve this
1361 problem. Note that no such tool is needed for NT, 2000 or XP.
1363 @subsubsection Windows 2000 disk full problem
1365 Windows 2000 has a bug which gives a disk full problem during its
1366 installation. When installing it, use the @option{-win2k-hack} QEMU
1367 option to enable a specific workaround. After Windows 2000 is
1368 installed, you no longer need this option (this option slows down the
1369 IDE transfers).
1371 @subsubsection Windows 2000 shutdown
1373 Windows 2000 cannot automatically shutdown in QEMU although Windows 98
1374 can. It comes from the fact that Windows 2000 does not automatically
1375 use the APM driver provided by the BIOS.
1377 In order to correct that, do the following (thanks to Struan
1378 Bartlett): go to the Control Panel => Add/Remove Hardware & Next =>
1379 Add/Troubleshoot a device => Add a new device & Next => No, select the
1380 hardware from a list & Next => NT Apm/Legacy Support & Next => Next
1381 (again) a few times. Now the driver is installed and Windows 2000 now
1382 correctly instructs QEMU to shutdown at the appropriate moment.
1384 @subsubsection Share a directory between Unix and Windows
1386 See @ref{sec_invocation} about the help of the option @option{-smb}.
1388 @subsubsection Windows XP security problems
1390 Some releases of Windows XP install correctly but give a security
1391 error when booting:
1392 @example
1393 A problem is preventing Windows from accurately checking the
1394 license for this computer. Error code: 0x800703e6.
1395 @end example
1396 The only known workaround is to boot in Safe mode
1397 without networking support.
1399 Future QEMU releases are likely to correct this bug.
1401 @subsection MS-DOS and FreeDOS
1403 @subsubsection CPU usage reduction
1405 DOS does not correctly use the CPU HLT instruction. The result is that
1406 it takes host CPU cycles even when idle. You can install the utility
1407 from @url{} to solve this
1408 problem.
1410 @node QEMU System emulator for non PC targets
1411 @chapter QEMU System emulator for non PC targets
1413 QEMU is a generic emulator and it emulates many non PC
1414 machines. Most of the options are similar to the PC emulator. The
1415 differences are mentionned in the following sections.
1417 @menu
1418 * QEMU PowerPC System emulator::
1419 * Sparc32 System emulator invocation::
1420 * Sparc64 System emulator invocation::
1421 * MIPS System emulator invocation::
1422 * ARM System emulator invocation::
1423 @end menu
1425 @node QEMU PowerPC System emulator
1426 @section QEMU PowerPC System emulator
1428 Use the executable @file{qemu-system-ppc} to simulate a complete PREP
1429 or PowerMac PowerPC system.
1431 QEMU emulates the following PowerMac peripherals:
1433 @itemize @minus
1434 @item
1435 UniNorth PCI Bridge
1436 @item
1437 PCI VGA compatible card with VESA Bochs Extensions
1438 @item
1439 2 PMAC IDE interfaces with hard disk and CD-ROM support
1440 @item
1441 NE2000 PCI adapters
1442 @item
1443 Non Volatile RAM
1444 @item
1445 VIA-CUDA with ADB keyboard and mouse.
1446 @end itemize
1448 QEMU emulates the following PREP peripherals:
1450 @itemize @minus
1451 @item
1452 PCI Bridge
1453 @item
1454 PCI VGA compatible card with VESA Bochs Extensions
1455 @item
1456 2 IDE interfaces with hard disk and CD-ROM support
1457 @item
1458 Floppy disk
1459 @item
1460 NE2000 network adapters
1461 @item
1462 Serial port
1463 @item
1464 PREP Non Volatile RAM
1465 @item
1466 PC compatible keyboard and mouse.
1467 @end itemize
1469 QEMU uses the Open Hack'Ware Open Firmware Compatible BIOS available at
1470 @url{}.
1472 @c man begin OPTIONS
1474 The following options are specific to the PowerPC emulation:
1476 @table @option
1478 @item -g WxH[xDEPTH]
1480 Set the initial VGA graphic mode. The default is 800x600x15.
1482 @end table
1484 @c man end
1487 More information is available at
1488 @url{}.
1490 @node Sparc32 System emulator invocation
1491 @section Sparc32 System emulator invocation
1493 Use the executable @file{qemu-system-sparc} to simulate a SparcStation 5
1494 (sun4m architecture). The emulation is somewhat complete.
1496 QEMU emulates the following sun4m peripherals:
1498 @itemize @minus
1499 @item
1500 IOMMU
1501 @item
1502 TCX Frame buffer
1503 @item
1504 Lance (Am7990) Ethernet
1505 @item
1506 Non Volatile RAM M48T08
1507 @item
1508 Slave I/O: timers, interrupt controllers, Zilog serial ports, keyboard
1509 and power/reset logic
1510 @item
1511 ESP SCSI controller with hard disk and CD-ROM support
1512 @item
1513 Floppy drive
1514 @end itemize
1516 The number of peripherals is fixed in the architecture.
1518 Since version 0.8.2, QEMU uses OpenBIOS
1519 @url{}. OpenBIOS is a free (GPL v2) portable
1520 firmware implementation. The goal is to implement a 100% IEEE
1521 1275-1994 (referred to as Open Firmware) compliant firmware.
1523 A sample Linux 2.6 series kernel and ram disk image are available on
1524 the QEMU web site. Please note that currently NetBSD, OpenBSD or
1525 Solaris kernels don't work.
1527 @c man begin OPTIONS
1529 The following options are specific to the Sparc emulation:
1531 @table @option
1533 @item -g WxH
1535 Set the initial TCX graphic mode. The default is 1024x768.
1537 @end table
1539 @c man end
1541 @node Sparc64 System emulator invocation
1542 @section Sparc64 System emulator invocation
1544 Use the executable @file{qemu-system-sparc64} to simulate a Sun4u machine.
1545 The emulator is not usable for anything yet.
1547 QEMU emulates the following sun4u peripherals:
1549 @itemize @minus
1550 @item
1551 UltraSparc IIi APB PCI Bridge
1552 @item
1553 PCI VGA compatible card with VESA Bochs Extensions
1554 @item
1555 Non Volatile RAM M48T59
1556 @item
1557 PC-compatible serial ports
1558 @end itemize
1560 @node MIPS System emulator invocation
1561 @section MIPS System emulator invocation
1563 Use the executable @file{qemu-system-mips} to simulate a MIPS machine.
1564 The emulator is able to boot a Linux kernel and to run a Linux Debian
1565 installation from NFS. The following devices are emulated:
1567 @itemize @minus
1568 @item
1570 @item
1571 PC style serial port
1572 @item
1573 NE2000 network card
1574 @end itemize
1576 More information is available in the QEMU mailing-list archive.
1578 @node ARM System emulator invocation
1579 @section ARM System emulator invocation
1581 Use the executable @file{qemu-system-arm} to simulate a ARM
1582 machine. The ARM Integrator/CP board is emulated with the following
1583 devices:
1585 @itemize @minus
1586 @item
1587 ARM926E or ARM1026E CPU
1588 @item
1589 Two PL011 UARTs
1590 @item
1591 SMC 91c111 Ethernet adapter
1592 @item
1593 PL110 LCD controller
1594 @item
1595 PL050 KMI with PS/2 keyboard and mouse.
1596 @end itemize
1598 The ARM Versatile baseboard is emulated with the following devices:
1600 @itemize @minus
1601 @item
1602 ARM926E CPU
1603 @item
1604 PL190 Vectored Interrupt Controller
1605 @item
1606 Four PL011 UARTs
1607 @item
1608 SMC 91c111 Ethernet adapter
1609 @item
1610 PL110 LCD controller
1611 @item
1612 PL050 KMI with PS/2 keyboard and mouse.
1613 @item
1614 PCI host bridge. Note the emulated PCI bridge only provides access to
1615 PCI memory space. It does not provide access to PCI IO space.
1616 This means some devices (eg. ne2k_pci NIC) are not useable, and others
1617 (eg. rtl8139 NIC) are only useable when the guest drivers use the memory
1618 mapped control registers.
1619 @item
1620 PCI OHCI USB controller.
1621 @item
1622 LSI53C895A PCI SCSI Host Bus Adapter with hard disk and CD-ROM devices.
1623 @end itemize
1625 A Linux 2.6 test image is available on the QEMU web site. More
1626 information is available in the QEMU mailing-list archive.
1628 @node QEMU Linux User space emulator
1629 @chapter QEMU Linux User space emulator
1631 @menu
1632 * Quick Start::
1633 * Wine launch::
1634 * Command line options::
1635 * Other binaries::
1636 @end menu
1638 @node Quick Start
1639 @section Quick Start
1641 In order to launch a Linux process, QEMU needs the process executable
1642 itself and all the target (x86) dynamic libraries used by it.
1644 @itemize
1646 @item On x86, you can just try to launch any process by using the native
1647 libraries:
1649 @example
1650 qemu-i386 -L / /bin/ls
1651 @end example
1653 @code{-L /} tells that the x86 dynamic linker must be searched with a
1654 @file{/} prefix.
1656 @item Since QEMU is also a linux process, you can launch qemu with qemu (NOTE: you can only do that if you compiled QEMU from the sources):
1658 @example
1659 qemu-i386 -L / qemu-i386 -L / /bin/ls
1660 @end example
1662 @item On non x86 CPUs, you need first to download at least an x86 glibc
1663 (@file{qemu-runtime-i386-XXX-.tar.gz} on the QEMU web page). Ensure that
1664 @code{LD_LIBRARY_PATH} is not set:
1666 @example
1667 unset LD_LIBRARY_PATH
1668 @end example
1670 Then you can launch the precompiled @file{ls} x86 executable:
1672 @example
1673 qemu-i386 tests/i386/ls
1674 @end example
1675 You can look at @file{} so that
1676 QEMU is automatically launched by the Linux kernel when you try to
1677 launch x86 executables. It requires the @code{binfmt_misc} module in the
1678 Linux kernel.
1680 @item The x86 version of QEMU is also included. You can try weird things such as:
1681 @example
1682 qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/qemu-i386 \
1683 /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/ls-i386
1684 @end example
1686 @end itemize
1688 @node Wine launch
1689 @section Wine launch
1691 @itemize
1693 @item Ensure that you have a working QEMU with the x86 glibc
1694 distribution (see previous section). In order to verify it, you must be
1695 able to do:
1697 @example
1698 qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/ls-i386
1699 @end example
1701 @item Download the binary x86 Wine install
1702 (@file{qemu-XXX-i386-wine.tar.gz} on the QEMU web page).
1704 @item Configure Wine on your account. Look at the provided script
1705 @file{/usr/local/qemu-i386/@/bin/}. Your previous
1706 @code{$@{HOME@}/.wine} directory is saved to @code{$@{HOME@}/}.
1708 @item Then you can try the example @file{putty.exe}:
1710 @example
1711 qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/wine/bin/wine \
1712 /usr/local/qemu-i386/wine/c/Program\ Files/putty.exe
1713 @end example
1715 @end itemize
1717 @node Command line options
1718 @section Command line options
1720 @example
1721 usage: qemu-i386 [-h] [-d] [-L path] [-s size] program [arguments...]
1722 @end example
1724 @table @option
1725 @item -h
1726 Print the help
1727 @item -L path
1728 Set the x86 elf interpreter prefix (default=/usr/local/qemu-i386)
1729 @item -s size
1730 Set the x86 stack size in bytes (default=524288)
1731 @end table
1733 Debug options:
1735 @table @option
1736 @item -d
1737 Activate log (logfile=/tmp/qemu.log)
1738 @item -p pagesize
1739 Act as if the host page size was 'pagesize' bytes
1740 @end table
1742 @node Other binaries
1743 @section Other binaries
1745 @command{qemu-arm} is also capable of running ARM "Angel" semihosted ELF
1746 binaries (as implemented by the arm-elf and arm-eabi Newlib/GDB
1747 configurations), and arm-uclinux bFLT format binaries.
1749 The binary format is detected automatically.
1751 @node compilation
1752 @chapter Compilation from the sources
1754 @menu
1755 * Linux/Unix::
1756 * Windows::
1757 * Cross compilation for Windows with Linux::
1758 * Mac OS X::
1759 @end menu
1761 @node Linux/Unix
1762 @section Linux/Unix
1764 @subsection Compilation
1766 First you must decompress the sources:
1767 @example
1768 cd /tmp
1769 tar zxvf qemu-x.y.z.tar.gz
1770 cd qemu-x.y.z
1771 @end example
1773 Then you configure QEMU and build it (usually no options are needed):
1774 @example
1775 ./configure
1776 make
1777 @end example
1779 Then type as root user:
1780 @example
1781 make install
1782 @end example
1783 to install QEMU in @file{/usr/local}.
1785 @subsection Tested tool versions
1787 In order to compile QEMU succesfully, it is very important that you
1788 have the right tools. The most important one is gcc. I cannot guaranty
1789 that QEMU works if you do not use a tested gcc version. Look at
1790 'configure' and 'Makefile' if you want to make a different gcc
1791 version work.
1793 @example
1794 host gcc binutils glibc linux distribution
1795 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
1796 x86 3.2 2.13.2 2.1.3 2.4.18
1797 2.96 2.2.5 2.4.18 Red Hat 7.3
1798 3.2.2 2.3.2 2.4.20 Red Hat 9
1800 PowerPC 3.3 [4] 2.3.1 2.4.20briq
1801 3.2
1803 Alpha 3.3 [1] 2.2.5 2.2.20 [2] Debian 3.0
1805 Sparc32 2.95.4 2.2.5 2.4.18 Debian 3.0
1807 ARM 2.95.4 2.2.5 2.4.9 [3] Debian 3.0
1809 [1] On Alpha, QEMU needs the gcc 'visibility' attribute only available
1810 for gcc version >= 3.3.
1811 [2] Linux >= 2.4.20 is necessary for precise exception support
1812 (untested).
1813 [3] 2.4.9-ac10-rmk2-np1-cerf2
1815 [4] gcc 2.95.x generates invalid code when using too many register
1816 variables. You must use gcc 3.x on PowerPC.
1817 @end example
1819 @node Windows
1820 @section Windows
1822 @itemize
1823 @item Install the current versions of MSYS and MinGW from
1824 @url{}. You can find detailed installation
1825 instructions in the download section and the FAQ.
1827 @item Download
1828 the MinGW development library of SDL 1.2.x
1829 (@file{SDL-devel-1.2.x-@/mingw32.tar.gz}) from
1830 @url{}. Unpack it in a temporary place, and
1831 unpack the archive @file{i386-mingw32msvc.tar.gz} in the MinGW tool
1832 directory. Edit the @file{sdl-config} script so that it gives the
1833 correct SDL directory when invoked.
1835 @item Extract the current version of QEMU.
1837 @item Start the MSYS shell (file @file{msys.bat}).
1839 @item Change to the QEMU directory. Launch @file{./configure} and
1840 @file{make}. If you have problems using SDL, verify that
1841 @file{sdl-config} can be launched from the MSYS command line.
1843 @item You can install QEMU in @file{Program Files/Qemu} by typing
1844 @file{make install}. Don't forget to copy @file{SDL.dll} in
1845 @file{Program Files/Qemu}.
1847 @end itemize
1849 @node Cross compilation for Windows with Linux
1850 @section Cross compilation for Windows with Linux
1852 @itemize
1853 @item
1854 Install the MinGW cross compilation tools available at
1855 @url{}.
1857 @item
1858 Install the Win32 version of SDL (@url{}) by
1859 unpacking @file{i386-mingw32msvc.tar.gz}. Set up the PATH environment
1860 variable so that @file{i386-mingw32msvc-sdl-config} can be launched by
1861 the QEMU configuration script.
1863 @item
1864 Configure QEMU for Windows cross compilation:
1865 @example
1866 ./configure --enable-mingw32
1867 @end example
1868 If necessary, you can change the cross-prefix according to the prefix
1869 choosen for the MinGW tools with --cross-prefix. You can also use
1870 --prefix to set the Win32 install path.
1872 @item You can install QEMU in the installation directory by typing
1873 @file{make install}. Don't forget to copy @file{SDL.dll} in the
1874 installation directory.
1876 @end itemize
1878 Note: Currently, Wine does not seem able to launch
1879 QEMU for Win32.
1881 @node Mac OS X
1882 @section Mac OS X
1884 The Mac OS X patches are not fully merged in QEMU, so you should look
1885 at the QEMU mailing list archive to have all the necessary
1886 information.
1888 @node Index
1889 @chapter Index
1890 @printindex cp
1892 @bye