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Exact replica of unstable on 051908 + README-this
author Mukesh Rathor
date Mon May 19 15:34:57 2008 -0700 (2008-05-19)
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1 \chapter{GNU Free Documentation License}
2 %\label{label_fdl}
4 \begin{center}
6 Version 1.2, November 2002
9 Copyright \copyright 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
11 \bigskip
13 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
15 \bigskip
17 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
18 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
19 \end{center}
22 \begin{center}
23 {\bf\large Preamble}
24 \end{center}
26 The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
27 functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
28 assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
29 with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
30 Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
31 to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
32 for modifications made by others.
34 This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
35 works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
36 complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
37 license designed for free software.
39 We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
40 software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
41 program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
42 software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
43 it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
44 whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
45 principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
48 \begin{center}
50 \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS}
51 \end{center}
53 This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
54 contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
55 distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a
56 world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
57 work under the conditions stated herein. The \textbf{"Document"}, below,
58 refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a
59 licensee, and is addressed as \textbf{"you"}. You accept the license if you
60 copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
61 under copyright law.
63 A \textbf{"Modified Version"} of the Document means any work containing the
64 Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
65 modifications and/or translated into another language.
67 A \textbf{"Secondary Section"} is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
68 the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
69 publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
70 (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
71 within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a
72 textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
73 mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
74 connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
75 commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
76 them.
78 The \textbf{"Invariant Sections"} are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
79 are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
80 that says that the Document is released under this License. If a
81 section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
82 allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero
83 Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant
84 Sections then there are none.
86 The \textbf{"Cover Texts"} are certain short passages of text that are listed,
87 as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
88 the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may
89 be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
91 A \textbf{"Transparent"} copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
92 represented in a format whose specification is available to the
93 general public, that is suitable for revising the document
94 straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
95 pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
96 drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
97 for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
98 to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
99 format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
100 or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
101 An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
102 of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called \textbf{"Opaque"}.
104 Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
105 ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
106 or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
107 HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of
108 transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats
109 include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
110 proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
111 processing tools are not generally available, and the
112 machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
113 processors for output purposes only.
115 The \textbf{"Title Page"} means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
116 plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
117 this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
118 formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
119 the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
120 preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
122 A section \textbf{"Entitled XYZ"} means a named subunit of the Document whose
123 title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
124 text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a
125 specific section name mentioned below, such as \textbf{"Acknowledgements"},
126 \textbf{"Dedications"}, \textbf{"Endorsements"}, or \textbf{"History"}.)
127 To \textbf{"Preserve the Title"}
128 of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
129 section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
131 The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
132 states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
133 Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
134 License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
135 implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
136 no effect on the meaning of this License.
139 \begin{center}
140 {\Large\bf 2. VERBATIM COPYING}
141 \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{2. VERBATIM COPYING}
142 \end{center}
144 You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
145 commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
146 copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
147 to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
148 conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
149 technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
150 copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
151 compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
152 number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
154 You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
155 you may publicly display copies.
158 \begin{center}
159 {\Large\bf 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY}
160 \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{3. COPYING IN QUANTITY}
161 \end{center}
164 If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
165 printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
166 Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
167 copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
168 Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
169 the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
170 you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
171 the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
172 visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
173 Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
174 the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
175 as verbatim copying in other respects.
177 If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
178 legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
179 reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
180 pages.
182 If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
183 more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
184 copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
185 a computer-network location from which the general network-using
186 public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
187 a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
188 If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
189 when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
190 that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
191 location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
192 Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
193 edition to the public.
195 It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
196 Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
197 them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
200 \begin{center}
201 {\Large\bf 4. MODIFICATIONS}
202 \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{4. MODIFICATIONS}
203 \end{center}
205 You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
206 the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
207 the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
208 Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
209 and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
210 of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
212 \begin{itemize}
213 \item[A.]
214 Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
215 from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
216 (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
217 of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
218 if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
220 \item[B.]
221 List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
222 responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
223 Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
224 Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
225 unless they release you from this requirement.
227 \item[C.]
228 State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
229 Modified Version, as the publisher.
231 \item[D.]
232 Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
234 \item[E.]
235 Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
236 adjacent to the other copyright notices.
238 \item[F.]
239 Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
240 giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
241 terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
243 \item[G.]
244 Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
245 and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
247 \item[H.]
248 Include an unaltered copy of this License.
250 \item[I.]
251 Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add
252 to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
253 publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
254 there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
255 stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
256 given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
257 Version as stated in the previous sentence.
259 \item[J.]
260 Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
261 public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
262 the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
263 it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section.
264 You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
265 least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
266 publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
268 \item[K.]
269 For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
270 Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
271 the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
272 and/or dedications given therein.
274 \item[L.]
275 Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
276 unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
277 or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
279 \item[M.]
280 Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section
281 may not be included in the Modified Version.
283 \item[N.]
284 Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements"
285 or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
287 \item[O.]
288 Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
289 \end{itemize}
291 If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
292 appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
293 copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
294 of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
295 list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
296 These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
298 You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
299 nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
300 parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
301 been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
302 standard.
304 You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
305 passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
306 of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
307 Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
308 through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
309 includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
310 by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
311 you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
312 permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
314 The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
315 give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
316 imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
319 \begin{center}
320 {\Large\bf 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS}
321 \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS}
322 \end{center}
325 You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
326 License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
327 versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
328 Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
329 list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
330 license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
332 The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
333 multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
334 copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
335 different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
336 adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
337 author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
338 Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
339 Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
341 In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
342 in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
343 "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
344 and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
345 Entitled "Endorsements".
347 \begin{center}
349 \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS}
350 \end{center}
352 You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
353 released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
354 License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
355 the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
356 verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
358 You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
359 it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
360 License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
361 other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
364 \begin{center}
366 \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS}
367 \end{center}
370 A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
371 and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
372 distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
373 resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
374 of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
375 When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
376 apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
377 derivative works of the Document.
379 If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
380 copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
381 the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
382 covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
383 electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
384 Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
385 aggregate.
388 \begin{center}
389 {\Large\bf 8. TRANSLATION}
390 \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{8. TRANSLATION}
391 \end{center}
394 Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
395 distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
396 Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
397 permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
398 translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
399 original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
400 translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
401 Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
402 the original English version of this License and the original versions
403 of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between
404 the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
405 or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
407 If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
408 "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
409 its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
410 title.
413 \begin{center}
414 {\Large\bf 9. TERMINATION}
415 \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{9. TERMINATION}
416 \end{center}
419 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
420 as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to
421 copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
422 automatically terminate your rights under this License. However,
423 parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
424 License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
425 parties remain in full compliance.
428 \begin{center}
430 \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE}
431 \end{center}
434 The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
435 of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new
436 versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
437 differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See
440 Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
441 If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
442 License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
443 following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
444 of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
445 Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
446 number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
447 as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
450 \begin{center}
451 {\Large\bf ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents}
452 \addcontentsline{toc}{section}{ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents}
453 \end{center}
455 To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
456 the License in the document and put the following copyright and
457 license notices just after the title page:
459 \bigskip
460 \begin{quote}
461 Copyright \copyright YEAR YOUR NAME.
462 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
463 under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
464 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
465 with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
466 A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
467 Free Documentation License".
468 \end{quote}
469 \bigskip
471 If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
472 replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
474 \bigskip
475 \begin{quote}
476 with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
477 Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
478 \end{quote}
479 \bigskip
481 If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
482 combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
483 situation.
485 If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
486 recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
487 free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
488 to permit their use in free software.