view tools/ioemu/qemu-doc.texi @ 0:7d21f7218375

Exact replica of unstable on 051908 + README-this
author Mukesh Rathor
date Mon May 19 15:34:57 2008 -0700 (2008-05-19)
line source
1 \input texinfo @c -*- texinfo -*-
2 @c %**start of header
3 @setfilename
4 @settitle QEMU Emulator User Documentation
5 @exampleindent 0
6 @paragraphindent 0
7 @c %**end of header
9 @iftex
10 @titlepage
11 @sp 7
12 @center @titlefont{QEMU Emulator}
13 @sp 1
14 @center @titlefont{User Documentation}
15 @sp 3
16 @end titlepage
17 @end iftex
19 @ifnottex
20 @node Top
21 @top
23 @menu
24 * Introduction::
25 * Installation::
26 * QEMU PC System emulator::
27 * QEMU System emulator for non PC targets::
28 * QEMU User space emulator::
29 * compilation:: Compilation from the sources
30 * Index::
31 @end menu
32 @end ifnottex
34 @contents
36 @node Introduction
37 @chapter Introduction
39 @menu
40 * intro_features:: Features
41 @end menu
43 @node intro_features
44 @section Features
46 QEMU is a FAST! processor emulator using dynamic translation to
47 achieve good emulation speed.
49 QEMU has two operating modes:
51 @itemize @minus
53 @item
54 Full system emulation. In this mode, QEMU emulates a full system (for
55 example a PC), including one or several processors and various
56 peripherals. It can be used to launch different Operating Systems
57 without rebooting the PC or to debug system code.
59 @item
60 User mode emulation. In this mode, QEMU can launch
61 processes compiled for one CPU on another CPU. It can be used to
62 launch the Wine Windows API emulator (@url{}) or
63 to ease cross-compilation and cross-debugging.
65 @end itemize
67 QEMU can run without an host kernel driver and yet gives acceptable
68 performance.
70 For system emulation, the following hardware targets are supported:
71 @itemize
72 @item PC (x86 or x86_64 processor)
73 @item ISA PC (old style PC without PCI bus)
74 @item PREP (PowerPC processor)
75 @item G3 BW PowerMac (PowerPC processor)
76 @item Mac99 PowerMac (PowerPC processor, in progress)
77 @item Sun4m (32-bit Sparc processor)
78 @item Sun4u (64-bit Sparc processor, in progress)
79 @item Malta board (32-bit MIPS processor)
80 @item ARM Integrator/CP (ARM926E or 1026E processor)
81 @item ARM Versatile baseboard (ARM926E)
82 @end itemize
84 For user emulation, x86, PowerPC, ARM, MIPS, Sparc32/64 and ColdFire(m68k) CPUs are supported.
86 @node Installation
87 @chapter Installation
89 If you want to compile QEMU yourself, see @ref{compilation}.
91 @menu
92 * install_linux:: Linux
93 * install_windows:: Windows
94 * install_mac:: Macintosh
95 @end menu
97 @node install_linux
98 @section Linux
100 If a precompiled package is available for your distribution - you just
101 have to install it. Otherwise, see @ref{compilation}.
103 @node install_windows
104 @section Windows
106 Download the experimental binary installer at
107 @url{}.
109 @node install_mac
110 @section Mac OS X
112 Download the experimental binary installer at
113 @url{}.
115 @node QEMU PC System emulator
116 @chapter QEMU PC System emulator
118 @menu
119 * pcsys_introduction:: Introduction
120 * pcsys_quickstart:: Quick Start
121 * sec_invocation:: Invocation
122 * pcsys_keys:: Keys
123 * pcsys_monitor:: QEMU Monitor
124 * disk_images:: Disk Images
125 * pcsys_network:: Network emulation
126 * direct_linux_boot:: Direct Linux Boot
127 * pcsys_usb:: USB emulation
128 * gdb_usage:: GDB usage
129 * pcsys_os_specific:: Target OS specific information
130 @end menu
132 @node pcsys_introduction
133 @section Introduction
135 @c man begin DESCRIPTION
137 The QEMU PC System emulator simulates the
138 following peripherals:
140 @itemize @minus
141 @item
142 i440FX host PCI bridge and PIIX3 PCI to ISA bridge
143 @item
144 Cirrus CLGD 5446 PCI VGA card or dummy VGA card with Bochs VESA
145 extensions (hardware level, including all non standard modes).
146 @item
147 PS/2 mouse and keyboard
148 @item
149 2 PCI IDE interfaces with hard disk and CD-ROM support
150 @item
151 Floppy disk
152 @item
153 NE2000 PCI network adapters
154 @item
155 Serial ports
156 @item
157 Creative SoundBlaster 16 sound card
158 @item
159 ENSONIQ AudioPCI ES1370 sound card
160 @item
161 Adlib(OPL2) - Yamaha YM3812 compatible chip
162 @item
163 PCI UHCI USB controller and a virtual USB hub.
164 @end itemize
166 SMP is supported with up to 255 CPUs.
168 Note that adlib is only available when QEMU was configured with
169 -enable-adlib
171 QEMU uses the PC BIOS from the Bochs project and the Plex86/Bochs LGPL
174 QEMU uses YM3812 emulation by Tatsuyuki Satoh.
176 @c man end
178 @node pcsys_quickstart
179 @section Quick Start
181 Download and uncompress the linux image (@file{linux.img}) and type:
183 @example
184 qemu linux.img
185 @end example
187 Linux should boot and give you a prompt.
189 @node sec_invocation
190 @section Invocation
192 @example
193 @c man begin SYNOPSIS
194 usage: qemu [options] [disk_image]
195 @c man end
196 @end example
198 @c man begin OPTIONS
199 @var{disk_image} is a raw hard disk image for IDE hard disk 0.
201 General options:
202 @table @option
203 @item -M machine
204 Select the emulated machine (@code{-M ?} for list)
206 @item -fda file
207 @item -fdb file
208 Use @var{file} as floppy disk 0/1 image (@pxref{disk_images}). You can
209 use the host floppy by using @file{/dev/fd0} as filename (@pxref{host_drives}).
211 @item -hda file
212 @item -hdb file
213 @item -hdc file
214 @item -hdd file
215 Use @var{file} as hard disk 0, 1, 2 or 3 image (@pxref{disk_images}).
217 @item -cdrom file
218 Use @var{file} as CD-ROM image (you cannot use @option{-hdc} and and
219 @option{-cdrom} at the same time). You can use the host CD-ROM by
220 using @file{/dev/cdrom} as filename (@pxref{host_drives}).
222 @item -boot [a|c|d|n]
223 Boot on floppy (a), hard disk (c), CD-ROM (d), or Etherboot (n). Hard disk boot
224 is the default.
226 @item -snapshot
227 Write to temporary files instead of disk image files. In this case,
228 the raw disk image you use is not written back. You can however force
229 the write back by pressing @key{C-a s} (@pxref{disk_images}).
231 @item -no-fd-bootchk
232 Disable boot signature checking for floppy disks in Bochs BIOS. It may
233 be needed to boot from old floppy disks.
235 @item -m megs
236 Set virtual RAM size to @var{megs} megabytes. Default is 128 MB.
238 @item -smp n
239 Simulate an SMP system with @var{n} CPUs. On the PC target, up to 255
240 CPUs are supported.
242 @item -nographic
244 Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output. With this option,
245 you can totally disable graphical output so that QEMU is a simple
246 command line application. The emulated serial port is redirected on
247 the console. Therefore, you can still use QEMU to debug a Linux kernel
248 with a serial console.
250 @item -vnc display
252 Normally, QEMU uses SDL to display the VGA output. With this option,
253 you can have QEMU listen on VNC display @var{display} and redirect the VGA
254 display over the VNC session. It is very useful to enable the usb
255 tablet device when using this option (option @option{-usbdevice
256 tablet}). When using the VNC display, you must use the @option{-k}
257 option to set the keyboard layout if you are not using en-us.
259 @var{display} may be in the form @var{interface:d}, in which case connections
260 will only be allowed from @var{interface} on display @var{d}. Optionally,
261 @var{interface} can be omitted. @var{display} can also be in the form
262 @var{unix:path} where @var{path} is the location of a unix socket to listen for
263 connections on.
266 @item -k language
268 Use keyboard layout @var{language} (for example @code{fr} for
269 French). This option is only needed where it is not easy to get raw PC
270 keycodes (e.g. on Macs, with some X11 servers or with a VNC
271 display). You don't normally need to use it on PC/Linux or PC/Windows
272 hosts.
274 The available layouts are:
275 @example
276 ar de-ch es fo fr-ca hu ja mk no pt-br sv
277 da en-gb et fr fr-ch is lt nl pl ru th
278 de en-us fi fr-be hr it lv nl-be pt sl tr
279 @end example
281 The default is @code{en-us}.
283 @item -audio-help
285 Will show the audio subsystem help: list of drivers, tunable
286 parameters.
288 @item -soundhw card1,card2,... or -soundhw all
290 Enable audio and selected sound hardware. Use ? to print all
291 available sound hardware.
293 @example
294 qemu -soundhw sb16,adlib hda
295 qemu -soundhw es1370 hda
296 qemu -soundhw all hda
297 qemu -soundhw ?
298 @end example
300 @item -localtime
301 Set the real time clock to local time (the default is to UTC
302 time). This option is needed to have correct date in MS-DOS or
303 Windows.
305 @item -full-screen
306 Start in full screen.
308 @item -pidfile file
309 Store the QEMU process PID in @var{file}. It is useful if you launch QEMU
310 from a script.
312 @item -daemonize
313 Daemonize the QEMU process after initialization. QEMU will not detach from
314 standard IO until it is ready to receive connections on any of its devices.
315 This option is a useful way for external programs to launch QEMU without having
316 to cope with initialization race conditions.
318 @item -win2k-hack
319 Use it when installing Windows 2000 to avoid a disk full bug. After
320 Windows 2000 is installed, you no longer need this option (this option
321 slows down the IDE transfers).
323 @item -option-rom file
324 Load the contents of file as an option ROM. This option is useful to load
325 things like EtherBoot.
327 @end table
329 USB options:
330 @table @option
332 @item -usb
333 Enable the USB driver (will be the default soon)
335 @item -usbdevice devname
336 Add the USB device @var{devname}. @xref{usb_devices}.
337 @end table
339 Network options:
341 @table @option
343 @item -net nic[,vlan=n][,macaddr=addr][,model=type]
344 Create a new Network Interface Card and connect it to VLAN @var{n} (@var{n}
345 = 0 is the default). The NIC is currently an NE2000 on the PC
346 target. Optionally, the MAC address can be changed. If no
347 @option{-net} option is specified, a single NIC is created.
348 Qemu can emulate several different models of network card. Valid values for
349 @var{type} are @code{ne2k_pci}, @code{ne2k_isa}, @code{rtl8139},
350 @code{smc91c111} and @code{lance}. Not all devices are supported on all
351 targets.
353 @item -net user[,vlan=n][,hostname=name]
354 Use the user mode network stack which requires no administrator
355 priviledge to run. @option{hostname=name} can be used to specify the client
356 hostname reported by the builtin DHCP server.
358 @item -net tap[,vlan=n][,fd=h][,ifname=name][,script=file]
359 Connect the host TAP network interface @var{name} to VLAN @var{n} and
360 use the network script @var{file} to configure it. The default
361 network script is @file{/etc/qemu-ifup}. Use @option{script=no} to
362 disable script execution. If @var{name} is not
363 provided, the OS automatically provides one. @option{fd=h} can be
364 used to specify the handle of an already opened host TAP interface. Example:
366 @example
367 qemu linux.img -net nic -net tap
368 @end example
370 More complicated example (two NICs, each one connected to a TAP device)
371 @example
372 qemu linux.img -net nic,vlan=0 -net tap,vlan=0,ifname=tap0 \
373 -net nic,vlan=1 -net tap,vlan=1,ifname=tap1
374 @end example
377 @item -net socket[,vlan=n][,fd=h][,listen=[host]:port][,connect=host:port]
379 Connect the VLAN @var{n} to a remote VLAN in another QEMU virtual
380 machine using a TCP socket connection. If @option{listen} is
381 specified, QEMU waits for incoming connections on @var{port}
382 (@var{host} is optional). @option{connect} is used to connect to
383 another QEMU instance using the @option{listen} option. @option{fd=h}
384 specifies an already opened TCP socket.
386 Example:
387 @example
388 # launch a first QEMU instance
389 qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
390 -net socket,listen=:1234
391 # connect the VLAN 0 of this instance to the VLAN 0
392 # of the first instance
393 qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
394 -net socket,connect=
395 @end example
397 @item -net socket[,vlan=n][,fd=h][,mcast=maddr:port]
399 Create a VLAN @var{n} shared with another QEMU virtual
400 machines using a UDP multicast socket, effectively making a bus for
401 every QEMU with same multicast address @var{maddr} and @var{port}.
402 NOTES:
403 @enumerate
404 @item
405 Several QEMU can be running on different hosts and share same bus (assuming
406 correct multicast setup for these hosts).
407 @item
408 mcast support is compatible with User Mode Linux (argument @option{eth@var{N}=mcast}), see
409 @url{}.
410 @item Use @option{fd=h} to specify an already opened UDP multicast socket.
411 @end enumerate
413 Example:
414 @example
415 # launch one QEMU instance
416 qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
417 -net socket,mcast=
418 # launch another QEMU instance on same "bus"
419 qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:57 \
420 -net socket,mcast=
421 # launch yet another QEMU instance on same "bus"
422 qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:58 \
423 -net socket,mcast=
424 @end example
426 Example (User Mode Linux compat.):
427 @example
428 # launch QEMU instance (note mcast address selected
429 # is UML's default)
430 qemu linux.img -net nic,macaddr=52:54:00:12:34:56 \
431 -net socket,mcast=
432 # launch UML
433 /path/to/linux ubd0=/path/to/root_fs eth0=mcast
434 @end example
436 @item -net none
437 Indicate that no network devices should be configured. It is used to
438 override the default configuration (@option{-net nic -net user}) which
439 is activated if no @option{-net} options are provided.
441 @item -tftp prefix
442 When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in TFTP
443 server. All filenames beginning with @var{prefix} can be downloaded
444 from the host to the guest using a TFTP client. The TFTP client on the
445 guest must be configured in binary mode (use the command @code{bin} of
446 the Unix TFTP client). The host IP address on the guest is as usual
449 @item -smb dir
450 When using the user mode network stack, activate a built-in SMB
451 server so that Windows OSes can access to the host files in @file{dir}
452 transparently.
454 In the guest Windows OS, the line:
455 @example
456 smbserver
457 @end example
458 must be added in the file @file{C:\WINDOWS\LMHOSTS} (for windows 9x/Me)
459 or @file{C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32\DRIVERS\ETC\LMHOSTS} (Windows NT/2000).
461 Then @file{dir} can be accessed in @file{\\smbserver\qemu}.
463 Note that a SAMBA server must be installed on the host OS in
464 @file{/usr/sbin/smbd}. QEMU was tested successfully with smbd version
465 2.2.7a from the Red Hat 9 and version 3.0.10-1.fc3 from Fedora Core 3.
467 @item -redir [tcp|udp]:host-port:[guest-host]:guest-port
469 When using the user mode network stack, redirect incoming TCP or UDP
470 connections to the host port @var{host-port} to the guest
471 @var{guest-host} on guest port @var{guest-port}. If @var{guest-host}
472 is not specified, its value is (default address given by the
473 built-in DHCP server).
475 For example, to redirect host X11 connection from screen 1 to guest
476 screen 0, use the following:
478 @example
479 # on the host
480 qemu -redir tcp:6001::6000 [...]
481 # this host xterm should open in the guest X11 server
482 xterm -display :1
483 @end example
485 To redirect telnet connections from host port 5555 to telnet port on
486 the guest, use the following:
488 @example
489 # on the host
490 qemu -redir tcp:5555::23 [...]
491 telnet localhost 5555
492 @end example
494 Then when you use on the host @code{telnet localhost 5555}, you
495 connect to the guest telnet server.
497 @end table
499 Linux boot specific: When using these options, you can use a given
500 Linux kernel without installing it in the disk image. It can be useful
501 for easier testing of various kernels.
503 @table @option
505 @item -kernel bzImage
506 Use @var{bzImage} as kernel image.
508 @item -append cmdline
509 Use @var{cmdline} as kernel command line
511 @item -initrd file
512 Use @var{file} as initial ram disk.
514 @end table
516 Debug/Expert options:
517 @table @option
519 @item -serial dev
520 Redirect the virtual serial port to host character device
521 @var{dev}. The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and
522 @code{stdio} in non graphical mode.
524 This option can be used several times to simulate up to 4 serials
525 ports.
527 Use @code{-serial none} to disable all serial ports.
529 Available character devices are:
530 @table @code
531 @item vc
532 Virtual console
533 @item pty
534 [Linux only] Pseudo TTY (a new PTY is automatically allocated)
535 @item none
536 No device is allocated.
537 @item null
538 void device
539 @item /dev/XXX
540 [Linux only] Use host tty, e.g. @file{/dev/ttyS0}. The host serial port
541 parameters are set according to the emulated ones.
542 @item /dev/parportN
543 [Linux only, parallel port only] Use host parallel port
544 @var{N}. Currently only SPP parallel port features can be used.
545 @item file:filename
546 Write output to filename. No character can be read.
547 @item stdio
548 [Unix only] standard input/output
549 @item pipe:filename
550 name pipe @var{filename}
551 @item COMn
552 [Windows only] Use host serial port @var{n}
553 @item udp:[remote_host]:remote_port[@@[src_ip]:src_port]
554 This implements UDP Net Console. When @var{remote_host} or @var{src_ip} are not specified they default to @code{}. When not using a specifed @var{src_port} a random port is automatically chosen.
556 If you just want a simple readonly console you can use @code{netcat} or
557 @code{nc}, by starting qemu with: @code{-serial udp::4555} and nc as:
558 @code{nc -u -l -p 4555}. Any time qemu writes something to that port it
559 will appear in the netconsole session.
561 If you plan to send characters back via netconsole or you want to stop
562 and start qemu a lot of times, you should have qemu use the same
563 source port each time by using something like @code{-serial
564 udp::4555@@:4556} to qemu. Another approach is to use a patched
565 version of netcat which can listen to a TCP port and send and receive
566 characters via udp. If you have a patched version of netcat which
567 activates telnet remote echo and single char transfer, then you can
568 use the following options to step up a netcat redirector to allow
569 telnet on port 5555 to access the qemu port.
570 @table @code
571 @item Qemu Options:
572 -serial udp::4555@@:4556
573 @item netcat options:
574 -u -P 4555 -L -t -p 5555 -I -T
575 @item telnet options:
576 localhost 5555
577 @end table
580 @item tcp:[host]:port[,server][,nowait][,nodelay]
581 The TCP Net Console has two modes of operation. It can send the serial
582 I/O to a location or wait for a connection from a location. By default
583 the TCP Net Console is sent to @var{host} at the @var{port}. If you use
584 the @var{server} option QEMU will wait for a client socket application
585 to connect to the port before continuing, unless the @code{nowait}
586 option was specified. The @code{nodelay} option disables the Nagle buffering
587 algoritm. If @var{host} is omitted, is assumed. Only
588 one TCP connection at a time is accepted. You can use @code{telnet} to
589 connect to the corresponding character device.
590 @table @code
591 @item Example to send tcp console to port 4444
592 -serial tcp:
593 @item Example to listen and wait on port 4444 for connection
594 -serial tcp::4444,server
595 @item Example to not wait and listen on ip port 4444
596 -serial tcp:,server,nowait
597 @end table
599 @item telnet:host:port[,server][,nowait][,nodelay]
600 The telnet protocol is used instead of raw tcp sockets. The options
601 work the same as if you had specified @code{-serial tcp}. The
602 difference is that the port acts like a telnet server or client using
603 telnet option negotiation. This will also allow you to send the
604 MAGIC_SYSRQ sequence if you use a telnet that supports sending the break
605 sequence. Typically in unix telnet you do it with Control-] and then
606 type "send break" followed by pressing the enter key.
608 @item unix:path[,server][,nowait]
609 A unix domain socket is used instead of a tcp socket. The option works the
610 same as if you had specified @code{-serial tcp} except the unix domain socket
611 @var{path} is used for connections.
613 @end table
615 @item -parallel dev
616 Redirect the virtual parallel port to host device @var{dev} (same
617 devices as the serial port). On Linux hosts, @file{/dev/parportN} can
618 be used to use hardware devices connected on the corresponding host
619 parallel port.
621 This option can be used several times to simulate up to 3 parallel
622 ports.
624 Use @code{-parallel none} to disable all parallel ports.
626 @item -monitor dev
627 Redirect the monitor to host device @var{dev} (same devices as the
628 serial port).
629 The default device is @code{vc} in graphical mode and @code{stdio} in
630 non graphical mode.
632 @item -s
633 Wait gdb connection to port 1234 (@pxref{gdb_usage}).
634 @item -p port
635 Change gdb connection port. @var{port} can be either a decimal number
636 to specify a TCP port, or a host device (same devices as the serial port).
637 @item -S
638 Do not start CPU at startup (you must type 'c' in the monitor).
639 @item -d
640 Output log in /tmp/qemu.log
641 @item -hdachs c,h,s,[,t]
642 Force hard disk 0 physical geometry (1 <= @var{c} <= 16383, 1 <=
643 @var{h} <= 16, 1 <= @var{s} <= 63) and optionally force the BIOS
644 translation mode (@var{t}=none, lba or auto). Usually QEMU can guess
645 all thoses parameters. This option is useful for old MS-DOS disk
646 images.
648 @item -L path
649 Set the directory for the BIOS, VGA BIOS and keymaps.
651 @item -std-vga
652 Simulate a standard VGA card with Bochs VBE extensions (default is
653 Cirrus Logic GD5446 PCI VGA). If your guest OS supports the VESA 2.0
654 VBE extensions (e.g. Windows XP) and if you want to use high
655 resolution modes (>= 1280x1024x16) then you should use this option.
657 @item -no-acpi
658 Disable ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) support. Use
659 it if your guest OS complains about ACPI problems (PC target machine
660 only).
662 @item -no-reboot
663 Exit instead of rebooting.
665 @item -loadvm file
666 Start right away with a saved state (@code{loadvm} in monitor)
668 @item -semihosting
669 Enable "Angel" semihosting interface (ARM target machines only).
670 Note that this allows guest direct access to the host filesystem,
671 so should only be used with trusted guest OS.
672 @end table
674 @c man end
676 @node pcsys_keys
677 @section Keys
679 @c man begin OPTIONS
681 During the graphical emulation, you can use the following keys:
682 @table @key
683 @item Ctrl-Alt-f
684 Toggle full screen
686 @item Ctrl-Alt-n
687 Switch to virtual console 'n'. Standard console mappings are:
688 @table @emph
689 @item 1
690 Target system display
691 @item 2
692 Monitor
693 @item 3
694 Serial port
695 @end table
697 @item Ctrl-Alt
698 Toggle mouse and keyboard grab.
699 @end table
701 In the virtual consoles, you can use @key{Ctrl-Up}, @key{Ctrl-Down},
702 @key{Ctrl-PageUp} and @key{Ctrl-PageDown} to move in the back log.
704 During emulation, if you are using the @option{-nographic} option, use
705 @key{Ctrl-a h} to get terminal commands:
707 @table @key
708 @item Ctrl-a h
709 Print this help
710 @item Ctrl-a x
711 Exit emulator
712 @item Ctrl-a s
713 Save disk data back to file (if -snapshot)
714 @item Ctrl-a b
715 Send break (magic sysrq in Linux)
716 @item Ctrl-a c
717 Switch between console and monitor
718 @item Ctrl-a Ctrl-a
719 Send Ctrl-a
720 @end table
721 @c man end
723 @ignore
725 @c man begin SEEALSO
726 The HTML documentation of QEMU for more precise information and Linux
727 user mode emulator invocation.
728 @c man end
730 @c man begin AUTHOR
731 Fabrice Bellard
732 @c man end
734 @end ignore
736 @node pcsys_monitor
737 @section QEMU Monitor
739 The QEMU monitor is used to give complex commands to the QEMU
740 emulator. You can use it to:
742 @itemize @minus
744 @item
745 Remove or insert removable medias images
746 (such as CD-ROM or floppies)
748 @item
749 Freeze/unfreeze the Virtual Machine (VM) and save or restore its state
750 from a disk file.
752 @item Inspect the VM state without an external debugger.
754 @end itemize
756 @subsection Commands
758 The following commands are available:
760 @table @option
762 @item help or ? [cmd]
763 Show the help for all commands or just for command @var{cmd}.
765 @item commit
766 Commit changes to the disk images (if -snapshot is used)
768 @item info subcommand
769 show various information about the system state
771 @table @option
772 @item info network
773 show the various VLANs and the associated devices
774 @item info block
775 show the block devices
776 @item info registers
777 show the cpu registers
778 @item info history
779 show the command line history
780 @item info pci
781 show emulated PCI device
782 @item info usb
783 show USB devices plugged on the virtual USB hub
784 @item info usbhost
785 show all USB host devices
786 @item info capture
787 show information about active capturing
788 @item info snapshots
789 show list of VM snapshots
790 @item info mice
791 show which guest mouse is receiving events
792 @end table
794 @item q or quit
795 Quit the emulator.
797 @item eject [-f] device
798 Eject a removable media (use -f to force it).
800 @item change device filename
801 Change a removable media.
803 @item screendump filename
804 Save screen into PPM image @var{filename}.
806 @item mouse_move dx dy [dz]
807 Move the active mouse to the specified coordinates @var{dx} @var{dy}
808 with optional scroll axis @var{dz}.
810 @item mouse_button val
811 Change the active mouse button state @var{val} (1=L, 2=M, 4=R).
813 @item mouse_set index
814 Set which mouse device receives events at given @var{index}, index
815 can be obtained with
816 @example
817 info mice
818 @end example
820 @item wavcapture filename [frequency [bits [channels]]]
821 Capture audio into @var{filename}. Using sample rate @var{frequency}
822 bits per sample @var{bits} and number of channels @var{channels}.
824 Defaults:
825 @itemize @minus
826 @item Sample rate = 44100 Hz - CD quality
827 @item Bits = 16
828 @item Number of channels = 2 - Stereo
829 @end itemize
831 @item stopcapture index
832 Stop capture with a given @var{index}, index can be obtained with
833 @example
834 info capture
835 @end example
837 @item log item1[,...]
838 Activate logging of the specified items to @file{/tmp/qemu.log}.
840 @item savevm [tag|id]
841 Create a snapshot of the whole virtual machine. If @var{tag} is
842 provided, it is used as human readable identifier. If there is already
843 a snapshot with the same tag or ID, it is replaced. More info at
844 @ref{vm_snapshots}.
846 @item loadvm tag|id
847 Set the whole virtual machine to the snapshot identified by the tag
848 @var{tag} or the unique snapshot ID @var{id}.
850 @item delvm tag|id
851 Delete the snapshot identified by @var{tag} or @var{id}.
853 @item stop
854 Stop emulation.
856 @item c or cont
857 Resume emulation.
859 @item gdbserver [port]
860 Start gdbserver session (default port=1234)
862 @item x/fmt addr
863 Virtual memory dump starting at @var{addr}.
865 @item xp /fmt addr
866 Physical memory dump starting at @var{addr}.
868 @var{fmt} is a format which tells the command how to format the
869 data. Its syntax is: @option{/@{count@}@{format@}@{size@}}
871 @table @var
872 @item count
873 is the number of items to be dumped.
875 @item format
876 can be x (hexa), d (signed decimal), u (unsigned decimal), o (octal),
877 c (char) or i (asm instruction).
879 @item size
880 can be b (8 bits), h (16 bits), w (32 bits) or g (64 bits). On x86,
881 @code{h} or @code{w} can be specified with the @code{i} format to
882 respectively select 16 or 32 bit code instruction size.
884 @end table
886 Examples:
887 @itemize
888 @item
889 Dump 10 instructions at the current instruction pointer:
890 @example
891 (qemu) x/10i $eip
892 0x90107063: ret
893 0x90107064: sti
894 0x90107065: lea 0x0(%esi,1),%esi
895 0x90107069: lea 0x0(%edi,1),%edi
896 0x90107070: ret
897 0x90107071: jmp 0x90107080
898 0x90107073: nop
899 0x90107074: nop
900 0x90107075: nop
901 0x90107076: nop
902 @end example
904 @item
905 Dump 80 16 bit values at the start of the video memory.
906 @smallexample
907 (qemu) xp/80hx 0xb8000
908 0x000b8000: 0x0b50 0x0b6c 0x0b65 0x0b78 0x0b38 0x0b36 0x0b2f 0x0b42
909 0x000b8010: 0x0b6f 0x0b63 0x0b68 0x0b73 0x0b20 0x0b56 0x0b47 0x0b41
910 0x000b8020: 0x0b42 0x0b69 0x0b6f 0x0b73 0x0b20 0x0b63 0x0b75 0x0b72
911 0x000b8030: 0x0b72 0x0b65 0x0b6e 0x0b74 0x0b2d 0x0b63 0x0b76 0x0b73
912 0x000b8040: 0x0b20 0x0b30 0x0b35 0x0b20 0x0b4e 0x0b6f 0x0b76 0x0b20
913 0x000b8050: 0x0b32 0x0b30 0x0b30 0x0b33 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
914 0x000b8060: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
915 0x000b8070: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
916 0x000b8080: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
917 0x000b8090: 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720 0x0720
918 @end smallexample
919 @end itemize
921 @item p or print/fmt expr
923 Print expression value. Only the @var{format} part of @var{fmt} is
924 used.
926 @item sendkey keys
928 Send @var{keys} to the emulator. Use @code{-} to press several keys
929 simultaneously. Example:
930 @example
931 sendkey ctrl-alt-f1
932 @end example
934 This command is useful to send keys that your graphical user interface
935 intercepts at low level, such as @code{ctrl-alt-f1} in X Window.
937 @item system_reset
939 Reset the system.
941 @item usb_add devname
943 Add the USB device @var{devname}. For details of available devices see
944 @ref{usb_devices}
946 @item usb_del devname
948 Remove the USB device @var{devname} from the QEMU virtual USB
949 hub. @var{devname} has the syntax @code{bus.addr}. Use the monitor
950 command @code{info usb} to see the devices you can remove.
952 @end table
954 @subsection Integer expressions
956 The monitor understands integers expressions for every integer
957 argument. You can use register names to get the value of specifics
958 CPU registers by prefixing them with @emph{$}.
960 @node disk_images
961 @section Disk Images
963 Since version 0.6.1, QEMU supports many disk image formats, including
964 growable disk images (their size increase as non empty sectors are
965 written), compressed and encrypted disk images. Version 0.8.3 added
966 the new qcow2 disk image format which is essential to support VM
967 snapshots.
969 @menu
970 * disk_images_quickstart:: Quick start for disk image creation
971 * disk_images_snapshot_mode:: Snapshot mode
972 * vm_snapshots:: VM snapshots
973 * qemu_img_invocation:: qemu-img Invocation
974 * host_drives:: Using host drives
975 * disk_images_fat_images:: Virtual FAT disk images
976 @end menu
978 @node disk_images_quickstart
979 @subsection Quick start for disk image creation
981 You can create a disk image with the command:
982 @example
983 qemu-img create myimage.img mysize
984 @end example
985 where @var{myimage.img} is the disk image filename and @var{mysize} is its
986 size in kilobytes. You can add an @code{M} suffix to give the size in
987 megabytes and a @code{G} suffix for gigabytes.
989 See @ref{qemu_img_invocation} for more information.
991 @node disk_images_snapshot_mode
992 @subsection Snapshot mode
994 If you use the option @option{-snapshot}, all disk images are
995 considered as read only. When sectors in written, they are written in
996 a temporary file created in @file{/tmp}. You can however force the
997 write back to the raw disk images by using the @code{commit} monitor
998 command (or @key{C-a s} in the serial console).
1000 @node vm_snapshots
1001 @subsection VM snapshots
1003 VM snapshots are snapshots of the complete virtual machine including
1004 CPU state, RAM, device state and the content of all the writable
1005 disks. In order to use VM snapshots, you must have at least one non
1006 removable and writable block device using the @code{qcow2} disk image
1007 format. Normally this device is the first virtual hard drive.
1009 Use the monitor command @code{savevm} to create a new VM snapshot or
1010 replace an existing one. A human readable name can be assigned to each
1011 snapshot in addition to its numerical ID.
1013 Use @code{loadvm} to restore a VM snapshot and @code{delvm} to remove
1014 a VM snapshot. @code{info snapshots} lists the available snapshots
1015 with their associated information:
1017 @example
1018 (qemu) info snapshots
1019 Snapshot devices: hda
1020 Snapshot list (from hda):
1022 1 start 41M 2006-08-06 12:38:02 00:00:14.954
1023 2 40M 2006-08-06 12:43:29 00:00:18.633
1024 3 msys 40M 2006-08-06 12:44:04 00:00:23.514
1025 @end example
1027 A VM snapshot is made of a VM state info (its size is shown in
1028 @code{info snapshots}) and a snapshot of every writable disk image.
1029 The VM state info is stored in the first @code{qcow2} non removable
1030 and writable block device. The disk image snapshots are stored in
1031 every disk image. The size of a snapshot in a disk image is difficult
1032 to evaluate and is not shown by @code{info snapshots} because the
1033 associated disk sectors are shared among all the snapshots to save
1034 disk space (otherwise each snapshot would need a full copy of all the
1035 disk images).
1037 When using the (unrelated) @code{-snapshot} option
1038 (@ref{disk_images_snapshot_mode}), you can always make VM snapshots,
1039 but they are deleted as soon as you exit QEMU.
1041 VM snapshots currently have the following known limitations:
1042 @itemize
1043 @item
1044 They cannot cope with removable devices if they are removed or
1045 inserted after a snapshot is done.
1046 @item
1047 A few device drivers still have incomplete snapshot support so their
1048 state is not saved or restored properly (in particular USB).
1049 @end itemize
1051 @node qemu_img_invocation
1052 @subsection @code{qemu-img} Invocation
1054 @include qemu-img.texi
1056 @node host_drives
1057 @subsection Using host drives
1059 In addition to disk image files, QEMU can directly access host
1060 devices. We describe here the usage for QEMU version >= 0.8.3.
1062 @subsubsection Linux
1064 On Linux, you can directly use the host device filename instead of a
1065 disk image filename provided you have enough proviledge to access
1066 it. For example, use @file{/dev/cdrom} to access to the CDROM or
1067 @file{/dev/fd0} for the floppy.
1069 @table @code
1070 @item CD
1071 You can specify a CDROM device even if no CDROM is loaded. QEMU has
1072 specific code to detect CDROM insertion or removal. CDROM ejection by
1073 the guest OS is supported. Currently only data CDs are supported.
1074 @item Floppy
1075 You can specify a floppy device even if no floppy is loaded. Floppy
1076 removal is currently not detected accurately (if you change floppy
1077 without doing floppy access while the floppy is not loaded, the guest
1078 OS will think that the same floppy is loaded).
1079 @item Hard disks
1080 Hard disks can be used. Normally you must specify the whole disk
1081 (@file{/dev/hdb} instead of @file{/dev/hdb1}) so that the guest OS can
1082 see it as a partitioned disk. WARNING: unless you know what you do, it
1083 is better to only make READ-ONLY accesses to the hard disk otherwise
1084 you may corrupt your host data (use the @option{-snapshot} command
1085 line option or modify the device permissions accordingly).
1086 @end table
1088 @subsubsection Windows
1090 @table @code
1091 @item CD
1092 The prefered syntax is the drive letter (e.g. @file{d:}). The
1093 alternate syntax @file{\\.\d:} is supported. @file{/dev/cdrom} is
1094 supported as an alias to the first CDROM drive.
1096 Currently there is no specific code to handle removable medias, so it
1097 is better to use the @code{change} or @code{eject} monitor commands to
1098 change or eject media.
1099 @item Hard disks
1100 Hard disks can be used with the syntax: @file{\\.\PhysicalDriveN}
1101 where @var{N} is the drive number (0 is the first hard disk).
1103 WARNING: unless you know what you do, it is better to only make
1104 READ-ONLY accesses to the hard disk otherwise you may corrupt your
1105 host data (use the @option{-snapshot} command line so that the
1106 modifications are written in a temporary file).
1107 @end table
1110 @subsubsection Mac OS X
1112 @file{/dev/cdrom} is an alias to the first CDROM.
1114 Currently there is no specific code to handle removable medias, so it
1115 is better to use the @code{change} or @code{eject} monitor commands to
1116 change or eject media.
1118 @node disk_images_fat_images
1119 @subsection Virtual FAT disk images
1121 QEMU can automatically create a virtual FAT disk image from a
1122 directory tree. In order to use it, just type:
1124 @example
1125 qemu linux.img -hdb fat:/my_directory
1126 @end example
1128 Then you access access to all the files in the @file{/my_directory}
1129 directory without having to copy them in a disk image or to export
1130 them via SAMBA or NFS. The default access is @emph{read-only}.
1132 Floppies can be emulated with the @code{:floppy:} option:
1134 @example
1135 qemu linux.img -fda fat:floppy:/my_directory
1136 @end example
1138 A read/write support is available for testing (beta stage) with the
1139 @code{:rw:} option:
1141 @example
1142 qemu linux.img -fda fat:floppy:rw:/my_directory
1143 @end example
1145 What you should @emph{never} do:
1146 @itemize
1147 @item use non-ASCII filenames ;
1148 @item use "-snapshot" together with ":rw:" ;
1149 @item expect it to work when loadvm'ing ;
1150 @item write to the FAT directory on the host system while accessing it with the guest system.
1151 @end itemize
1153 @node pcsys_network
1154 @section Network emulation
1156 QEMU can simulate several networks cards (NE2000 boards on the PC
1157 target) and can connect them to an arbitrary number of Virtual Local
1158 Area Networks (VLANs). Host TAP devices can be connected to any QEMU
1159 VLAN. VLAN can be connected between separate instances of QEMU to
1160 simulate large networks. For simpler usage, a non priviledged user mode
1161 network stack can replace the TAP device to have a basic network
1162 connection.
1164 @subsection VLANs
1166 QEMU simulates several VLANs. A VLAN can be symbolised as a virtual
1167 connection between several network devices. These devices can be for
1168 example QEMU virtual Ethernet cards or virtual Host ethernet devices
1169 (TAP devices).
1171 @subsection Using TAP network interfaces
1173 This is the standard way to connect QEMU to a real network. QEMU adds
1174 a virtual network device on your host (called @code{tapN}), and you
1175 can then configure it as if it was a real ethernet card.
1177 @subsubsection Linux host
1179 As an example, you can download the @file{linux-test-xxx.tar.gz}
1180 archive and copy the script @file{qemu-ifup} in @file{/etc} and
1181 configure properly @code{sudo} so that the command @code{ifconfig}
1182 contained in @file{qemu-ifup} can be executed as root. You must verify
1183 that your host kernel supports the TAP network interfaces: the
1184 device @file{/dev/net/tun} must be present.
1186 See @ref{sec_invocation} to have examples of command lines using the
1187 TAP network interfaces.
1189 @subsubsection Windows host
1191 There is a virtual ethernet driver for Windows 2000/XP systems, called
1192 TAP-Win32. But it is not included in standard QEMU for Windows,
1193 so you will need to get it separately. It is part of OpenVPN package,
1194 so download OpenVPN from : @url{}.
1196 @subsection Using the user mode network stack
1198 By using the option @option{-net user} (default configuration if no
1199 @option{-net} option is specified), QEMU uses a completely user mode
1200 network stack (you don't need root priviledge to use the virtual
1201 network). The virtual network configuration is the following:
1203 @example
1205 QEMU VLAN <------> Firewall/DHCP server <-----> Internet
1206 | (
1208 ----> DNS server (
1210 ----> SMB server (
1211 @end example
1213 The QEMU VM behaves as if it was behind a firewall which blocks all
1214 incoming connections. You can use a DHCP client to automatically
1215 configure the network in the QEMU VM. The DHCP server assign addresses
1216 to the hosts starting from
1218 In order to check that the user mode network is working, you can ping
1219 the address and verify that you got an address in the range
1220 10.0.2.x from the QEMU virtual DHCP server.
1222 Note that @code{ping} is not supported reliably to the internet as it
1223 would require root priviledges. It means you can only ping the local
1224 router (
1226 When using the built-in TFTP server, the router is also the TFTP
1227 server.
1229 When using the @option{-redir} option, TCP or UDP connections can be
1230 redirected from the host to the guest. It allows for example to
1231 redirect X11, telnet or SSH connections.
1233 @subsection Connecting VLANs between QEMU instances
1235 Using the @option{-net socket} option, it is possible to make VLANs
1236 that span several QEMU instances. See @ref{sec_invocation} to have a
1237 basic example.
1239 @node direct_linux_boot
1240 @section Direct Linux Boot
1242 This section explains how to launch a Linux kernel inside QEMU without
1243 having to make a full bootable image. It is very useful for fast Linux
1244 kernel testing.
1246 The syntax is:
1247 @example
1248 qemu -kernel arch/i386/boot/bzImage -hda root-2.4.20.img -append "root=/dev/hda"
1249 @end example
1251 Use @option{-kernel} to provide the Linux kernel image and
1252 @option{-append} to give the kernel command line arguments. The
1253 @option{-initrd} option can be used to provide an INITRD image.
1255 When using the direct Linux boot, a disk image for the first hard disk
1256 @file{hda} is required because its boot sector is used to launch the
1257 Linux kernel.
1259 If you do not need graphical output, you can disable it and redirect
1260 the virtual serial port and the QEMU monitor to the console with the
1261 @option{-nographic} option. The typical command line is:
1262 @example
1263 qemu -kernel arch/i386/boot/bzImage -hda root-2.4.20.img \
1264 -append "root=/dev/hda console=ttyS0" -nographic
1265 @end example
1267 Use @key{Ctrl-a c} to switch between the serial console and the
1268 monitor (@pxref{pcsys_keys}).
1270 @node pcsys_usb
1271 @section USB emulation
1273 QEMU emulates a PCI UHCI USB controller. You can virtually plug
1274 virtual USB devices or real host USB devices (experimental, works only
1275 on Linux hosts). Qemu will automatically create and connect virtual USB hubs
1276 as necessary to connect multiple USB devices.
1278 @menu
1279 * usb_devices::
1280 * host_usb_devices::
1281 @end menu
1282 @node usb_devices
1283 @subsection Connecting USB devices
1285 USB devices can be connected with the @option{-usbdevice} commandline option
1286 or the @code{usb_add} monitor command. Available devices are:
1288 @table @var
1289 @item @code{mouse}
1290 Virtual Mouse. This will override the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.
1291 @item @code{tablet}
1292 Pointer device that uses absolute coordinates (like a touchscreen).
1293 This means qemu is able to report the mouse position without having
1294 to grab the mouse. Also overrides the PS/2 mouse emulation when activated.
1295 @item @code{disk:file}
1296 Mass storage device based on @var{file} (@pxref{disk_images})
1297 @item @code{host:bus.addr}
1298 Pass through the host device identified by @var{bus.addr}
1299 (Linux only)
1300 @item @code{host:vendor_id:product_id}
1301 Pass through the host device identified by @var{vendor_id:product_id}
1302 (Linux only)
1303 @end table
1305 @node host_usb_devices
1306 @subsection Using host USB devices on a Linux host
1308 WARNING: this is an experimental feature. QEMU will slow down when
1309 using it. USB devices requiring real time streaming (i.e. USB Video
1310 Cameras) are not supported yet.
1312 @enumerate
1313 @item If you use an early Linux 2.4 kernel, verify that no Linux driver
1314 is actually using the USB device. A simple way to do that is simply to
1315 disable the corresponding kernel module by renaming it from @file{mydriver.o}
1316 to @file{mydriver.o.disabled}.
1318 @item Verify that @file{/proc/bus/usb} is working (most Linux distributions should enable it by default). You should see something like that:
1319 @example
1320 ls /proc/bus/usb
1321 001 devices drivers
1322 @end example
1324 @item Since only root can access to the USB devices directly, you can either launch QEMU as root or change the permissions of the USB devices you want to use. For testing, the following suffices:
1325 @example
1326 chown -R myuid /proc/bus/usb
1327 @end example
1329 @item Launch QEMU and do in the monitor:
1330 @example
1331 info usbhost
1332 Device 1.2, speed 480 Mb/s
1333 Class 00: USB device 1234:5678, USB DISK
1334 @end example
1335 You should see the list of the devices you can use (Never try to use
1336 hubs, it won't work).
1338 @item Add the device in QEMU by using:
1339 @example
1340 usb_add host:1234:5678
1341 @end example
1343 Normally the guest OS should report that a new USB device is
1344 plugged. You can use the option @option{-usbdevice} to do the same.
1346 @item Now you can try to use the host USB device in QEMU.
1348 @end enumerate
1350 When relaunching QEMU, you may have to unplug and plug again the USB
1351 device to make it work again (this is a bug).
1353 @node gdb_usage
1354 @section GDB usage
1356 QEMU has a primitive support to work with gdb, so that you can do
1357 'Ctrl-C' while the virtual machine is running and inspect its state.
1359 In order to use gdb, launch qemu with the '-s' option. It will wait for a
1360 gdb connection:
1361 @example
1362 > qemu -s -kernel arch/i386/boot/bzImage -hda root-2.4.20.img \
1363 -append "root=/dev/hda"
1364 Connected to host network interface: tun0
1365 Waiting gdb connection on port 1234
1366 @end example
1368 Then launch gdb on the 'vmlinux' executable:
1369 @example
1370 > gdb vmlinux
1371 @end example
1373 In gdb, connect to QEMU:
1374 @example
1375 (gdb) target remote localhost:1234
1376 @end example
1378 Then you can use gdb normally. For example, type 'c' to launch the kernel:
1379 @example
1380 (gdb) c
1381 @end example
1383 Here are some useful tips in order to use gdb on system code:
1385 @enumerate
1386 @item
1387 Use @code{info reg} to display all the CPU registers.
1388 @item
1389 Use @code{x/10i $eip} to display the code at the PC position.
1390 @item
1391 Use @code{set architecture i8086} to dump 16 bit code. Then use
1392 @code{x/10i $cs*16+$eip} to dump the code at the PC position.
1393 @end enumerate
1395 @node pcsys_os_specific
1396 @section Target OS specific information
1398 @subsection Linux
1400 To have access to SVGA graphic modes under X11, use the @code{vesa} or
1401 the @code{cirrus} X11 driver. For optimal performances, use 16 bit
1402 color depth in the guest and the host OS.
1404 When using a 2.6 guest Linux kernel, you should add the option
1405 @code{clock=pit} on the kernel command line because the 2.6 Linux
1406 kernels make very strict real time clock checks by default that QEMU
1407 cannot simulate exactly.
1409 When using a 2.6 guest Linux kernel, verify that the 4G/4G patch is
1410 not activated because QEMU is slower with this patch. The QEMU
1411 Accelerator Module is also much slower in this case. Earlier Fedora
1412 Core 3 Linux kernel (< 2.6.9-1.724_FC3) were known to incorporte this
1413 patch by default. Newer kernels don't have it.
1415 @subsection Windows
1417 If you have a slow host, using Windows 95 is better as it gives the
1418 best speed. Windows 2000 is also a good choice.
1420 @subsubsection SVGA graphic modes support
1422 QEMU emulates a Cirrus Logic GD5446 Video
1423 card. All Windows versions starting from Windows 95 should recognize
1424 and use this graphic card. For optimal performances, use 16 bit color
1425 depth in the guest and the host OS.
1427 If you are using Windows XP as guest OS and if you want to use high
1428 resolution modes which the Cirrus Logic BIOS does not support (i.e. >=
1429 1280x1024x16), then you should use the VESA VBE virtual graphic card
1430 (option @option{-std-vga}).
1432 @subsubsection CPU usage reduction
1434 Windows 9x does not correctly use the CPU HLT
1435 instruction. The result is that it takes host CPU cycles even when
1436 idle. You can install the utility from
1437 @url{} to solve this
1438 problem. Note that no such tool is needed for NT, 2000 or XP.
1440 @subsubsection Windows 2000 disk full problem
1442 Windows 2000 has a bug which gives a disk full problem during its
1443 installation. When installing it, use the @option{-win2k-hack} QEMU
1444 option to enable a specific workaround. After Windows 2000 is
1445 installed, you no longer need this option (this option slows down the
1446 IDE transfers).
1448 @subsubsection Windows 2000 shutdown
1450 Windows 2000 cannot automatically shutdown in QEMU although Windows 98
1451 can. It comes from the fact that Windows 2000 does not automatically
1452 use the APM driver provided by the BIOS.
1454 In order to correct that, do the following (thanks to Struan
1455 Bartlett): go to the Control Panel => Add/Remove Hardware & Next =>
1456 Add/Troubleshoot a device => Add a new device & Next => No, select the
1457 hardware from a list & Next => NT Apm/Legacy Support & Next => Next
1458 (again) a few times. Now the driver is installed and Windows 2000 now
1459 correctly instructs QEMU to shutdown at the appropriate moment.
1461 @subsubsection Share a directory between Unix and Windows
1463 See @ref{sec_invocation} about the help of the option @option{-smb}.
1465 @subsubsection Windows XP security problem
1467 Some releases of Windows XP install correctly but give a security
1468 error when booting:
1469 @example
1470 A problem is preventing Windows from accurately checking the
1471 license for this computer. Error code: 0x800703e6.
1472 @end example
1474 The workaround is to install a service pack for XP after a boot in safe
1475 mode. Then reboot, and the problem should go away. Since there is no
1476 network while in safe mode, its recommended to download the full
1477 installation of SP1 or SP2 and transfer that via an ISO or using the
1478 vvfat block device ("-hdb fat:directory_which_holds_the_SP").
1480 @subsection MS-DOS and FreeDOS
1482 @subsubsection CPU usage reduction
1484 DOS does not correctly use the CPU HLT instruction. The result is that
1485 it takes host CPU cycles even when idle. You can install the utility
1486 from @url{} to solve this
1487 problem.
1489 @node QEMU System emulator for non PC targets
1490 @chapter QEMU System emulator for non PC targets
1492 QEMU is a generic emulator and it emulates many non PC
1493 machines. Most of the options are similar to the PC emulator. The
1494 differences are mentionned in the following sections.
1496 @menu
1497 * QEMU PowerPC System emulator::
1498 * Sparc32 System emulator invocation::
1499 * Sparc64 System emulator invocation::
1500 * MIPS System emulator invocation::
1501 * ARM System emulator invocation::
1502 @end menu
1504 @node QEMU PowerPC System emulator
1505 @section QEMU PowerPC System emulator
1507 Use the executable @file{qemu-system-ppc} to simulate a complete PREP
1508 or PowerMac PowerPC system.
1510 QEMU emulates the following PowerMac peripherals:
1512 @itemize @minus
1513 @item
1514 UniNorth PCI Bridge
1515 @item
1516 PCI VGA compatible card with VESA Bochs Extensions
1517 @item
1518 2 PMAC IDE interfaces with hard disk and CD-ROM support
1519 @item
1520 NE2000 PCI adapters
1521 @item
1522 Non Volatile RAM
1523 @item
1524 VIA-CUDA with ADB keyboard and mouse.
1525 @end itemize
1527 QEMU emulates the following PREP peripherals:
1529 @itemize @minus
1530 @item
1531 PCI Bridge
1532 @item
1533 PCI VGA compatible card with VESA Bochs Extensions
1534 @item
1535 2 IDE interfaces with hard disk and CD-ROM support
1536 @item
1537 Floppy disk
1538 @item
1539 NE2000 network adapters
1540 @item
1541 Serial port
1542 @item
1543 PREP Non Volatile RAM
1544 @item
1545 PC compatible keyboard and mouse.
1546 @end itemize
1548 QEMU uses the Open Hack'Ware Open Firmware Compatible BIOS available at
1549 @url{}.
1551 @c man begin OPTIONS
1553 The following options are specific to the PowerPC emulation:
1555 @table @option
1557 @item -g WxH[xDEPTH]
1559 Set the initial VGA graphic mode. The default is 800x600x15.
1561 @end table
1563 @c man end
1566 More information is available at
1567 @url{}.
1569 @node Sparc32 System emulator invocation
1570 @section Sparc32 System emulator invocation
1572 Use the executable @file{qemu-system-sparc} to simulate a SparcStation 5
1573 (sun4m architecture). The emulation is somewhat complete.
1575 QEMU emulates the following sun4m peripherals:
1577 @itemize @minus
1578 @item
1579 IOMMU
1580 @item
1581 TCX Frame buffer
1582 @item
1583 Lance (Am7990) Ethernet
1584 @item
1585 Non Volatile RAM M48T08
1586 @item
1587 Slave I/O: timers, interrupt controllers, Zilog serial ports, keyboard
1588 and power/reset logic
1589 @item
1590 ESP SCSI controller with hard disk and CD-ROM support
1591 @item
1592 Floppy drive
1593 @end itemize
1595 The number of peripherals is fixed in the architecture.
1597 Since version 0.8.2, QEMU uses OpenBIOS
1598 @url{}. OpenBIOS is a free (GPL v2) portable
1599 firmware implementation. The goal is to implement a 100% IEEE
1600 1275-1994 (referred to as Open Firmware) compliant firmware.
1602 A sample Linux 2.6 series kernel and ram disk image are available on
1603 the QEMU web site. Please note that currently NetBSD, OpenBSD or
1604 Solaris kernels don't work.
1606 @c man begin OPTIONS
1608 The following options are specific to the Sparc emulation:
1610 @table @option
1612 @item -g WxH
1614 Set the initial TCX graphic mode. The default is 1024x768.
1616 @end table
1618 @c man end
1620 @node Sparc64 System emulator invocation
1621 @section Sparc64 System emulator invocation
1623 Use the executable @file{qemu-system-sparc64} to simulate a Sun4u machine.
1624 The emulator is not usable for anything yet.
1626 QEMU emulates the following sun4u peripherals:
1628 @itemize @minus
1629 @item
1630 UltraSparc IIi APB PCI Bridge
1631 @item
1632 PCI VGA compatible card with VESA Bochs Extensions
1633 @item
1634 Non Volatile RAM M48T59
1635 @item
1636 PC-compatible serial ports
1637 @end itemize
1639 @node MIPS System emulator invocation
1640 @section MIPS System emulator invocation
1642 Use the executable @file{qemu-system-mips} to simulate a MIPS machine.
1643 The emulator is able to boot a Linux kernel and to run a Linux Debian
1644 installation from NFS. The following devices are emulated:
1646 @itemize @minus
1647 @item
1649 @item
1650 PC style serial port
1651 @item
1652 NE2000 network card
1653 @end itemize
1655 More information is available in the QEMU mailing-list archive.
1657 @node ARM System emulator invocation
1658 @section ARM System emulator invocation
1660 Use the executable @file{qemu-system-arm} to simulate a ARM
1661 machine. The ARM Integrator/CP board is emulated with the following
1662 devices:
1664 @itemize @minus
1665 @item
1666 ARM926E or ARM1026E CPU
1667 @item
1668 Two PL011 UARTs
1669 @item
1670 SMC 91c111 Ethernet adapter
1671 @item
1672 PL110 LCD controller
1673 @item
1674 PL050 KMI with PS/2 keyboard and mouse.
1675 @end itemize
1677 The ARM Versatile baseboard is emulated with the following devices:
1679 @itemize @minus
1680 @item
1681 ARM926E CPU
1682 @item
1683 PL190 Vectored Interrupt Controller
1684 @item
1685 Four PL011 UARTs
1686 @item
1687 SMC 91c111 Ethernet adapter
1688 @item
1689 PL110 LCD controller
1690 @item
1691 PL050 KMI with PS/2 keyboard and mouse.
1692 @item
1693 PCI host bridge. Note the emulated PCI bridge only provides access to
1694 PCI memory space. It does not provide access to PCI IO space.
1695 This means some devices (eg. ne2k_pci NIC) are not useable, and others
1696 (eg. rtl8139 NIC) are only useable when the guest drivers use the memory
1697 mapped control registers.
1698 @item
1699 PCI OHCI USB controller.
1700 @item
1701 LSI53C895A PCI SCSI Host Bus Adapter with hard disk and CD-ROM devices.
1702 @end itemize
1704 A Linux 2.6 test image is available on the QEMU web site. More
1705 information is available in the QEMU mailing-list archive.
1707 @node QEMU User space emulator
1708 @chapter QEMU User space emulator
1710 @menu
1711 * Supported Operating Systems ::
1712 * Linux User space emulator::
1713 * Mac OS X/Darwin User space emulator ::
1714 @end menu
1716 @node Supported Operating Systems
1717 @section Supported Operating Systems
1719 The following OS are supported in user space emulation:
1721 @itemize @minus
1722 @item
1723 Linux (refered as qemu-linux-user)
1724 @item
1725 Mac OS X/Darwin (refered as qemu-darwin-user)
1726 @end itemize
1728 @node Linux User space emulator
1729 @section Linux User space emulator
1731 @menu
1732 * Quick Start::
1733 * Wine launch::
1734 * Command line options::
1735 * Other binaries::
1736 @end menu
1738 @node Quick Start
1739 @subsection Quick Start
1741 In order to launch a Linux process, QEMU needs the process executable
1742 itself and all the target (x86) dynamic libraries used by it.
1744 @itemize
1746 @item On x86, you can just try to launch any process by using the native
1747 libraries:
1749 @example
1750 qemu-i386 -L / /bin/ls
1751 @end example
1753 @code{-L /} tells that the x86 dynamic linker must be searched with a
1754 @file{/} prefix.
1756 @item Since QEMU is also a linux process, you can launch qemu with qemu (NOTE: you can only do that if you compiled QEMU from the sources):
1758 @example
1759 qemu-i386 -L / qemu-i386 -L / /bin/ls
1760 @end example
1762 @item On non x86 CPUs, you need first to download at least an x86 glibc
1763 (@file{qemu-runtime-i386-XXX-.tar.gz} on the QEMU web page). Ensure that
1764 @code{LD_LIBRARY_PATH} is not set:
1766 @example
1767 unset LD_LIBRARY_PATH
1768 @end example
1770 Then you can launch the precompiled @file{ls} x86 executable:
1772 @example
1773 qemu-i386 tests/i386/ls
1774 @end example
1775 You can look at @file{} so that
1776 QEMU is automatically launched by the Linux kernel when you try to
1777 launch x86 executables. It requires the @code{binfmt_misc} module in the
1778 Linux kernel.
1780 @item The x86 version of QEMU is also included. You can try weird things such as:
1781 @example
1782 qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/qemu-i386 \
1783 /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/ls-i386
1784 @end example
1786 @end itemize
1788 @node Wine launch
1789 @subsection Wine launch
1791 @itemize
1793 @item Ensure that you have a working QEMU with the x86 glibc
1794 distribution (see previous section). In order to verify it, you must be
1795 able to do:
1797 @example
1798 qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/bin/ls-i386
1799 @end example
1801 @item Download the binary x86 Wine install
1802 (@file{qemu-XXX-i386-wine.tar.gz} on the QEMU web page).
1804 @item Configure Wine on your account. Look at the provided script
1805 @file{/usr/local/qemu-i386/@/bin/}. Your previous
1806 @code{$@{HOME@}/.wine} directory is saved to @code{$@{HOME@}/}.
1808 @item Then you can try the example @file{putty.exe}:
1810 @example
1811 qemu-i386 /usr/local/qemu-i386/wine/bin/wine \
1812 /usr/local/qemu-i386/wine/c/Program\ Files/putty.exe
1813 @end example
1815 @end itemize
1817 @node Command line options
1818 @subsection Command line options
1820 @example
1821 usage: qemu-i386 [-h] [-d] [-L path] [-s size] program [arguments...]
1822 @end example
1824 @table @option
1825 @item -h
1826 Print the help
1827 @item -L path
1828 Set the x86 elf interpreter prefix (default=/usr/local/qemu-i386)
1829 @item -s size
1830 Set the x86 stack size in bytes (default=524288)
1831 @end table
1833 Debug options:
1835 @table @option
1836 @item -d
1837 Activate log (logfile=/tmp/qemu.log)
1838 @item -p pagesize
1839 Act as if the host page size was 'pagesize' bytes
1840 @end table
1842 @node Other binaries
1843 @subsection Other binaries
1845 @command{qemu-arm} is also capable of running ARM "Angel" semihosted ELF
1846 binaries (as implemented by the arm-elf and arm-eabi Newlib/GDB
1847 configurations), and arm-uclinux bFLT format binaries.
1849 @command{qemu-m68k} is capable of running semihosted binaries using the BDM
1850 (m5xxx-ram-hosted.ld) or m68k-sim (sim.ld) syscall interfaces, and
1851 coldfire uClinux bFLT format binaries.
1853 The binary format is detected automatically.
1855 @node Mac OS X/Darwin User space emulator
1856 @section Mac OS X/Darwin User space emulator
1858 @menu
1859 * Mac OS X/Darwin Status::
1860 * Mac OS X/Darwin Quick Start::
1861 * Mac OS X/Darwin Command line options::
1862 @end menu
1864 @node Mac OS X/Darwin Status
1865 @subsection Mac OS X/Darwin Status
1867 @itemize @minus
1868 @item
1869 target x86 on x86: Most apps (Cocoa and Carbon too) works. [1]
1870 @item
1871 target PowerPC on x86: Not working as the ppc commpage can't be mapped (yet!)
1872 @item
1873 target x86 on x86: Most apps (Cocoa and Carbon too) works. [1]
1874 @item
1875 target x86 on PowerPC: most utilities work. Cocoa and Carbon apps are not yet supported.
1876 @end itemize
1878 [1] If you're host commpage can be executed by qemu.
1880 @node Mac OS X/Darwin Quick Start
1881 @subsection Quick Start
1883 In order to launch a Mac OS X/Darwin process, QEMU needs the process executable
1884 itself and all the target dynamic libraries used by it. If you don't have the FAT
1885 libraries (you're running Mac OS X/ppc) you'll need to obtain it from a Mac OS X
1886 CD or compile them by hand.
1888 @itemize
1890 @item On x86, you can just try to launch any process by using the native
1891 libraries:
1893 @example
1894 qemu-darwin-i386 /bin/ls
1895 @end example
1897 or to run the ppc version of the executable:
1899 @example
1900 qemu-darwin-ppc /bin/ls
1901 @end example
1903 @item On ppc, you'll have to tell qemu where your x86 libraries (and dynamic linker)
1904 are installed:
1906 @example
1907 qemu-darwin-i386 -L /opt/x86_root/ /bin/ls
1908 @end example
1910 @code{-L /opt/x86_root/} tells that the dynamic linker (dyld) path is in
1911 @file{/opt/x86_root/usr/bin/dyld}.
1913 @end itemize
1915 @node Mac OS X/Darwin Command line options
1916 @subsection Command line options
1918 @example
1919 usage: qemu-darwin-i386 [-h] [-d] [-L path] [-s size] program [arguments...]
1920 @end example
1922 @table @option
1923 @item -h
1924 Print the help
1925 @item -L path
1926 Set the library root path (default=/)
1927 @item -s size
1928 Set the stack size in bytes (default=524288)
1929 @end table
1931 Debug options:
1933 @table @option
1934 @item -d
1935 Activate log (logfile=/tmp/qemu.log)
1936 @item -p pagesize
1937 Act as if the host page size was 'pagesize' bytes
1938 @end table
1940 @node compilation
1941 @chapter Compilation from the sources
1943 @menu
1944 * Linux/Unix::
1945 * Windows::
1946 * Cross compilation for Windows with Linux::
1947 * Mac OS X::
1948 @end menu
1950 @node Linux/Unix
1951 @section Linux/Unix
1953 @subsection Compilation
1955 First you must decompress the sources:
1956 @example
1957 cd /tmp
1958 tar zxvf qemu-x.y.z.tar.gz
1959 cd qemu-x.y.z
1960 @end example
1962 Then you configure QEMU and build it (usually no options are needed):
1963 @example
1964 ./configure
1965 make
1966 @end example
1968 Then type as root user:
1969 @example
1970 make install
1971 @end example
1972 to install QEMU in @file{/usr/local}.
1974 @subsection GCC version
1976 In order to compile QEMU successfully, it is very important that you
1977 have the right tools. The most important one is gcc. On most hosts and
1978 in particular on x86 ones, @emph{gcc 4.x is not supported}. If your
1979 Linux distribution includes a gcc 4.x compiler, you can usually
1980 install an older version (it is invoked by @code{gcc32} or
1981 @code{gcc34}). The QEMU configure script automatically probes for
1982 these older versions so that usally you don't have to do anything.
1984 @node Windows
1985 @section Windows
1987 @itemize
1988 @item Install the current versions of MSYS and MinGW from
1989 @url{}. You can find detailed installation
1990 instructions in the download section and the FAQ.
1992 @item Download
1993 the MinGW development library of SDL 1.2.x
1994 (@file{SDL-devel-1.2.x-@/mingw32.tar.gz}) from
1995 @url{}. Unpack it in a temporary place, and
1996 unpack the archive @file{i386-mingw32msvc.tar.gz} in the MinGW tool
1997 directory. Edit the @file{sdl-config} script so that it gives the
1998 correct SDL directory when invoked.
2000 @item Extract the current version of QEMU.
2002 @item Start the MSYS shell (file @file{msys.bat}).
2004 @item Change to the QEMU directory. Launch @file{./configure} and
2005 @file{make}. If you have problems using SDL, verify that
2006 @file{sdl-config} can be launched from the MSYS command line.
2008 @item You can install QEMU in @file{Program Files/Qemu} by typing
2009 @file{make install}. Don't forget to copy @file{SDL.dll} in
2010 @file{Program Files/Qemu}.
2012 @end itemize
2014 @node Cross compilation for Windows with Linux
2015 @section Cross compilation for Windows with Linux
2017 @itemize
2018 @item
2019 Install the MinGW cross compilation tools available at
2020 @url{}.
2022 @item
2023 Install the Win32 version of SDL (@url{}) by
2024 unpacking @file{i386-mingw32msvc.tar.gz}. Set up the PATH environment
2025 variable so that @file{i386-mingw32msvc-sdl-config} can be launched by
2026 the QEMU configuration script.
2028 @item
2029 Configure QEMU for Windows cross compilation:
2030 @example
2031 ./configure --enable-mingw32
2032 @end example
2033 If necessary, you can change the cross-prefix according to the prefix
2034 choosen for the MinGW tools with --cross-prefix. You can also use
2035 --prefix to set the Win32 install path.
2037 @item You can install QEMU in the installation directory by typing
2038 @file{make install}. Don't forget to copy @file{SDL.dll} in the
2039 installation directory.
2041 @end itemize
2043 Note: Currently, Wine does not seem able to launch
2044 QEMU for Win32.
2046 @node Mac OS X
2047 @section Mac OS X
2049 The Mac OS X patches are not fully merged in QEMU, so you should look
2050 at the QEMU mailing list archive to have all the necessary
2051 information.
2053 @node Index
2054 @chapter Index
2055 @printindex cp
2057 @bye